Research ArticleAPPLIED ECOLOGY

High extinction risk for wild coffee species and implications for coffee sector sustainability

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Science Advances  16 Jan 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 1, eaav3473
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aav3473
  • Fig. 1 IUCN extinction risk categories for coffee species.

    Waffle chart, showing the proportion and number of threatened, nonthreatened, and DD coffee species in main blocks, and the proportion and number of coffee species assigned to each IUCN extinction risk category. The total number of species is 124 [CR, 10.5% (13 species); EN, 32.3% (40 species); VU, 17.7% (22 species); NT, 8% (10 species); LC, 21% (26 species); DD, 11.3% (14 species)]. Each square is equal to one species.

  • Fig. 2 Total number of coffee species threatened with extinction by area.

    Map showing threatened coffee species by TDWG level 3 areas (countries or subdivisions of countries; see Materials and Methods for the definition of TDWG level 3). See fig. S1 for number of coffee species by area.

  • Table 1 Number and percentage of coffee species held in germplasm collections (ex situ) and occurring in protected areas (in situ), organized by CWR priority group and extinction risk category (33).

    Numbers in parentheses represent percentage for each CWR priority group or each IUCN category. n/a, not applicable.

    CWR priority groupNumber of speciesTotal number (%) of
    threatened species
    per CWR group
    Number (%) of species
    in germplasm
    collections (ex situ)
    Number (%) of species
    in protected areas
    (in situ)
    Number (%) of species
    lacking ex situ or in
    situ representation
    Group I
    EN11 (100)1 (100)0 (0)
    LC33 (100)3 (100)0 (0)
    Totals41 (25)4 (100)4 (100)0 (0)
    Group II
    CR61 (17)1 (17)4 (67)
    EN94 (44)9 (100)0 (0)
    VU82 (25)8 (100)0 (0)
    NT43 (75)4 (100)0 (0)
    LC85 (63)8 (100)0 (0)
    DD31 (33)n/an/a
    Totals3823 (61)16 (42)30 (79)4 (11)
    Group III
    CR72 (29)2 (29)3 (43)
    EN3018 (60)20 (67)4 (13)
    VU1411 (79)13 (93)1 (7)
    NT54 (80)5 (100)0 (0)
    LC1511 (73)15 (100)0 (0)
    DD112 (18)n/an/a
    Totals8251 (62)48 (59)55 (67)8 (10)
    Totals12475 (60)68 (55)89 (72)12 (10)

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/5/1/eaav3473/DC1

    Supplementary Text

    Fig. S1. Total number of coffee species by area.

    Fig. S2. Total number of DD coffee species by area.

    Fig. S3. Summary of threats for coffee species.

    Table S1. List of coffee species with main distribution area, IUCN extinction risk category, CWR priority group, occurrence in germplasm collections (ex situ), and occurrence in protected areas (in situ).

    Table S2. Main distribution area and number and percentage of species against IUCN extinction risk category.

    Table S3. Number and percentage of threatened and DD coffee species arranged by TDWG level 3.

    Table S4. Number and percentage of coffee species held in germplasm collections (ex situ) and occurring in protected areas (in situ).

    Table S5. Size distribution of species numbers according to EOO in km2.

    References (8894)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Supplementary Text
    • Fig. S1. Total number of coffee species by area.
    • Fig. S2. Total number of DD coffee species by area.
    • Fig. S3. Summary of threats for coffee species.
    • Table S1. List of coffee species with main distribution area, IUCN extinction risk category, CWR priority group, occurrence in germplasm collections (ex situ), and occurrence in protected areas (in situ).
    • Table S2. Main distribution area and number and percentage of species against IUCN extinction risk category.
    • Table S3. Number and percentage of threatened and DD coffee species arranged by TDWG level 3.
    • Table S4. Number and percentage of coffee species held in germplasm collections (ex situ) and occurring in protected areas (in situ).
    • Table S5. Size distribution of species numbers according to EOO in km2.
    • References (8894)

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