Research ArticleChemistry

Lithiophilicity chemistry of heteroatom-doped carbon to guide uniform lithium nucleation in lithium metal anodes

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Science Advances  15 Feb 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 2, eaau7728
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aau7728

Abstract

The uncontrollable growth of lithium (Li) dendrites seriously impedes practical applications of Li metal batteries. Various lithiophilic conductive frameworks, especially carbon hosts, are used to guide uniform Li nucleation and thus deliver a dendrite-free composite anode. However, the lithiophilic nature of these carbon hosts is poorly understood. Herein, the lithiophilicity chemistry of heteroatom-doped carbon is investigated through both first principles calculations and experimental verifications to guide uniform Li nucleation. The electronegativity, local dipole, and charge transfer are proposed to reveal the lithiophilicity of doping sites. Li bond chemistry further deepens the understanding of lithiophilicity. The O-doped and O/B–co-doped carbons exhibit the best lithiophilicity among single-doped and co-doped carbons, respectively. The excellent lithiophilicity achieved by O-doping carbon is further validated by Li nucleation overpotential measurement. This work uncovers the lithiophilicity chemistry of heteroatom-doped carbons and affords a mechanistic guidance to Li metal anode frameworks for safe rechargeable batteries.

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