Information for authors

Editorial policies for Science Advances can be found here.

Requirements for Research Articles

Submit your Research Article to Science Advances in Microsoft Word's .docx (preferred), .doc or LaTex format.

When possible, use our Word template (for Research Articles), which will facilitate accurate preparation and processing.

Download a copy of our Word template here.

Research Articles can be up to 15,000 words in length; the body text must include the sections in the list below. Please do not use paragraph breaks in the title, author list, or abstract.

Title

Authors and their affiliations

Abstract

Introduction

Results

Discussion

Materials and Methods

References

Acknowledgments

Figures and tables

Supplementary Materials

We strongly encourage authors to download and use our template.

Download a copy of our Word template, which streamlines correct preparation of your paper.

Format for Research Articles

Please follow these guidelines in formatting your manuscript and numbering and providing captions for your figures, tables, and other materials.

Title

Please provide both a long and a short title for your paper.

Full titles can be a maximum of 100 characters; short titles can be a maximum of 40 characters.

Authors

Authors should be listed in order of contribution to the paper beneath the title on the opening page of the manuscript. Use first name, then middle initial (if any), followed by last name with each name separated by commas. The author list should be one single paragraph with no line breaks. See our manuscript template for formatting.

Author Affiliated Institutions

Author affiliated institutions should be listed and linked by superscript numbers, as shown in the manuscript template.

Abstract

The abstract should be a single paragraph, not to exceed 250 words and ideally closer to 200, written in plain language that a general reader can understand. It should include

An opening sentence that states the question/problem addressed by the research AND

Enough background content to give context to the study AND

A brief statement of primary results AND

A short concluding sentence.

Do not include citations or undefined abbreviations in the abstract. Any abbreviations that appear in the title should be defined in the abstract.

Introduction

The manuscript should start with a brief introduction that lays out the problem addressed by the research and describes the paper’s importance. The scientific question being investigated should be described in detail. The introduction should provide sufficient background information to make the article understandable to readers in other disciplines, and provide enough context to ensure that the implications of the experimental findings are clear.

Results

The results should describe the experiments performed and the findings observed. The results section should be divided into subsections to delineate different experimental themes. Subheadings should either be all phrases or all complete sentences. All data must be shown either in the main text or in the Supplementary Materials.

All data should be presented in the Results. No data should be presented for the first time in the Discussion. Data (such as from Western blots) should be appropriately quantified.

Subheadings must be either all complete sentences or all phrases. They should be brief, ideally less than 10 words. Subheadings should not end in a period. Your paper may have as many subheadings as are necessary.

Figures and tables must be called out in numerical order. For example, the first mention of any panel of Fig. 3 cannot precede the first mention of all panels of Fig. 2. The supplementary figures (for example, fig. S1) and tables (table S1) must also be called out in numerical order.

Display equations (set on their own line) can be included. Do not use the native Word 2007, 2008, 2010, or 2011 equation editor. This can in produce inaccurate MathML, the online markup language we use, which may result in display errors. Instead, use the legacy equation editor in Word (Insert menu; select insert object; select word equation) or use MathType (recommended). If you enter equations in simple LaTeX, check that they will convert accurately (Word 2007 and higher can convert simple LaTeX equations). Display equations should be numbered at the right—(1), (2), etc.

The same guidelines apply to mathematical expressions within a sentence of text; however, MathType (or the equivalent) should be used within text only when the desired result cannot be achieved using ordinary Word characters. Reserve MathType for when its use is unavoidable—for example, characters with overbars or carets, with stacked superscripts and subscripts, or within square root symbols.

All data must be shown; references to “unpublished results” or “data not shown” are not permitted.

Discussion

The discussion describes the conclusions that can be drawn from the results, as well as the significance and implications of the research. A paragraph discussing the limitations of the study should be included and any issues that will need to be addressed before application to animal, human, or environmental health should also be described.

Materials and Methods

The materials and methods section should provide sufficient information to allow replication of the results. Begin with a section titled Experimental Design describing the objectives and design of the study as well as pre-specified components.

In addition, include a section titled Statistical Analysis at the end that fully describes the statistical methods with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the results. The values for NP, and the specific statistical test performed for each experiment should be included in the appropriate figure legend or main text.

Also see Experimental Design and Statistics Guidelines below for details.

References

In text references should be cited in parentheses with an italic number (1). Multiple reference citations are separated by commas (23) or, if citing more than two consecutive references, by an en dash (4–6).

End lists references should be in the order in which references are cited, first through the text, then through the figure and table legends, and finally through the Supplementary Materials. List each reference only once. Each reference should have a unique number. Do not use op. cit., ibid., or et al. See below for details of citation style.

Acknowledgments

Acknowledgments should be gathered into a paragraph after the final numbered reference. This section should also include complete funding information, a description of each author's contribution to the paper, a listing of any competing interests of any of the authors (all authors must also fill out the Conflict of Interest form), and, a section on data and materials availability, information about the location of the data if not included in the paper, including accession numbers to any data relating to the paper and deposited in a public database.

Figure legends

Figure legends (i.e., captions) should be double-spaced in numerical order and included in the text file immediately after each figure. Each figure legend should start with a short boldface title beginning with (for example) Fig. 1. All figure titles should be phrases or sentences; do not mix the two styles. No single legend should be longer than about 200 words. Nomenclature, abbreviations, symbols, and units used in a figure legend (and in the figure itself) should match those used in the text. Individual figure panels are in boldface when first mentioned in a legend: (A), (B), etc.

Figures

Figures should be called out within the text. Figures should be numbered in the order of their citation in the text. They should be submitted as part of the online submission embedded in the Word file (with legend below) or, if necessary for large files only, on a CD. See below for detailed instructions on preparation of and preferred formats for your figures.

Tables

Tables should supplement, not duplicate, the text. They should be called out within the text and numbered in the order of their citation in the text. Each table should be preceded by a legend that starts with a short boldface title beginning with (for example) Table 1. Every vertical column should have a heading, followed by a unit of measure (if any) in parentheses. Units should not change within a column. Centered headings of the body of the table can be used to break the entries into groups. Footnotes should contain information relevant to specific cells of the table; use the following symbols in order, as needed:*, †, ‡, §, ||, ¶, #, **, ††, etc. (Don’t use footnotes in column heads; include any such details in sentence form in the table legend.)

Supplementary Materials

Supplementary Materials (SM) can be various types of auxiliary information of use to readers, including material not presentable in a text format. We encourage authors to provide original data in SM. We can host supplementary figures and legends, detailed materials and methods, video files, audio files, original data files, and large data sets.

All SM elements should be accompanied by a brief text description, similar to a caption. The first sentence of this caption should be a title, and the titles of the SM items should be listed immediately before the References section. The SM should not be essential to the general understanding of the research presented in the main text of the paper. See below for more information about preferred file formats and file sizes.

Experimental Design and Statistics Guidelines

Study Design

In an ideal study, the following components will be specified before the initiation of the experiments. In the first section of the Materials and Methods, which should be titled Study Design, state how you have addressed each of these points (if applicable):

Sample size. How did you select your sample size? Did you use a power analysis to calculate the sample size necessary to achieve a reliable measurement of the effect? Did you alter this number during the course of the study and, if so, why?

Rules for stopping data collection. Did you define rules for stopping data collection in advance (for example, specific intermediary and final endpoints)?

Data inclusion/exclusion criteria. What criteria did you apply for inclusion and exclusion of data? Were these criteria established prospectively?

Outliers. How were outliers defined and handled? Were they defined before the beginning of the study? Have you reported outliers that were excluded?

Selection of endpoints. Were the primary and secondary endpoints prospectively selected? If multiple endpoints were assessed, the appropriate statistical corrections should be applied.

Replicates. How many times was each experiment performed? How were the number and composition of replicates determined? Specify both sampling and experimental replicates. Were the results substantiated by repetition under a range of conditions?

In addition, the Study Design section must describe how and why the study was conducted and how the data were collected. Specifically,

Research objectives. State the objectives of the research, clearly distinguishing pre-specified hypotheses from hypotheses suggested after initiation of the data analyses.

Research subjects or units of investigation. Describe the type of research subjects (e.g., cancer patients, healthy volunteers), animals, or experimental units (e.g., cell cultures) studied.

Experimental design. Describe the overall design (e.g., randomized controlled clinical trial, controlled laboratory experiment, observational study, survey). Include the treatments that were applied, the types of observations made, and the measurement techniques used. The details of the measurement methods should be described in separate sections. If a questionnaire was used to obtain information from human subjects, include it.

Randomization. Include in the description of the study whether the subject or other experimental units were assigned randomly to the various experimental groups and, if not, how the sample was selected (e.g., random sample, stratified sample, matched case-control sets). The population from which they were taken should be specified. How was randomization performed? Were the data collected and processed randomly, or were they grouped?

Blinding. Include whether the study was blinded and the method used for allocation concealment, blinded conduct of the experiment, and blinded assessment of outcomes. Did the investigator know to which group a particular animal taken from a cage (for example) was allocated? Were the animal caretakers and investigators conducting the experiments blinded to the allocation sequence? Were the investigators who assessed, measured, or quantified the results blinded to the intervention?

Statistical Analysis

Generally, authors should describe statistical methods with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the results.

Data pre-processing steps such as transformations, re-coding, re-scaling, normalization, truncation, and handling of below-detectable-level readings and outliers should be fully described; any removal or modification of data values must be fully acknowledged and justified.

Descriptive statistics should be presented for variables that are integral to subsequent analyses and interpretation of the study findings.

The number of sampled units, N, upon which each reported statistic is based must be stated.

For continuous variables, distributions should be described using graphical displays such as scatterplots, boxplots, or histograms or by reporting measures of central tendency (e.g., mean or median) and dispersion (e.g., SD, interquartile range).

For continuous variables that are approximately normally distributed, mean and SD are suitable measures for center and dispersion, respectively.

For continuous variables with asymmetrical distributions, median and range (or interquartile range) are preferred to mean and SD.

All measures of central tendency or dispersion that are used should be identified.

For very small samples sizes (e.g., N < 20), presentation of all data values in tabular format is desirable unless presentation would violate restrictions for privacy or confidentiality for human subjects.

Units should be supplied for all measurements.

Methods used for conducting statistical tests (e.g., t test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Wald test of regression coefficient) and for constructing confidence intervals (e.g., normal-based 95% CI: mean ± 2SD, likelihood ratio–based interval) should be clearly stated. Mention methods used in the Materials and Methods, and then provide the individual test name in the figure legend for each experiment.

The testing level (alpha) and whether one-sided or two-sided testing was used should be reported for each statistical test; typically two-sided testing is appropriate, but if one-sided testing is used, its use should be justified.

Adjustments made to alpha levels (e.g., Bonferroni correction) or other procedures used to account for multiple testing (e.g., false discovery rate control) should be reported.

When Bayesian analyses are conducted, any assumptions made for prior distributions must be fully described.

Sufficient information should be supplied to allow readers to judge whether any assumptions necessary for the validity of statistical approaches (e.g., data are normally distributed, survival data are consistent with proportional hazards in a Cox regression model) have been verified.

An accounting of missing data values should be provided; if imputed data values are used in statistical analyses, the methods used for imputation should be fully described.

Novel or highly complex statistical methods or computational algorithms should be adequately described with references supplied to allow readers the opportunity to recreate the calculations; at its discretion, Science Advances may require that computer code and data be made available as supplementary information as a condition of publication.

Authors should present results in complete and transparent fashion, so that all stated conclusions are backed by appropriate statistical evaluation and any limitations of the study are frankly discussed.

Point estimates of population parameters (e.g., mean, correlation coefficient, slope) or comparative measures (e.g., mean difference, odds ratio, hazard ratio) should be accompanied by a measure of uncertainty such as a standard error or a confidence interval.

Results of each statistical test should be reported in full with the value of the test statistic and P value, and not simply reported as significant or nonsignificant; more than two significant digits on Pvalues are usually not needed except in situations of extreme multiple testing, such as in genetic association studies where stringent corrections for multiple testing might be used.

Any results that are reported to constitute a blinded, independent validation of a statistical model (or mathematical classifier or predictor) must be accompanied by a detailed explanation that includes (i) specification of the exact “locked down” form of the model, including all data processing steps, algorithm for calculating the model output, and any cutpoints that might be applied to the model output for final classification; (ii) date on which the model or predictor was fully locked down in exactly the form described; (iii) name of the individual(s) who maintained the blinded data and oversaw the evaluation (e.g., honest broker); and (iv) statement of assurance that no modifications, additions, or exclusion were made to the validation data set from the point at which the model was locked down and that neither the validation data nor any subset of it had ever been used to assess or refine the model being tested.

Reporting Guidelines

Authors are encouraged to follow published standard reporting guidelines for the study discipline. Many of these can be found at the EQUATOR website, www.equator-network.org.

Type of Study Guidelines
Animal studies ARRIVE
Prognostic marker studies REMARK
Diagnostic markers  
Meta-analysis of observational,studies in medicine MOOSE,D. F. Stroup et al., JAMA. 283, 2008 (2000)
Systematic reviews and meta-analysis,of health care interventions PRISMA
Cohort and case-control studies STROBE
Genetic association studies STROBE Extension STREGA
Tumor marker studies R. M. Simon et al., J. Natl. Cancer,Inst. 101, 1446 (2009)
Studies using biospecimens BRISQ
Rodent model studies M. G. Hollingshead, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 100, 1500 (2008)
Microarray-based studies for,clinical outcomes Table 3 in A. Dupuy, R. M. Simon, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 99, 147 (2007)

Preparation of Figures

Creating your figures

It is best to create your figures as vector-based files such as those produced by Adobe Illustrator. Vector-based files will give us maximum flexibility for sizing your figures properly without losing resolution. Although we do not need the highest-resolution files for the initial submission, you will need to have these high-resolution files of your figures on hand so that they can be submitted with your revised manuscript for final publication. These figure files can be saved at a lower resolution to minimize the file size at initial submission.

Figure layout and scaling

Electronic figures should be sized to fit on single 8.5´´ × 11´´ or A4 paper, preferably at 3.5, 5.0, or 7.3 inches wide (corresponding to 1, 1.5, or 2 columns of text). In laying out information in a figure, the objective is to maximize the space given to presentation of the data. Avoid wasted white space and clutter.

Please follow these guidelines for your figures.

The figure’s title should be at the beginning of the figure legend, not within the figure itself.

Include the figure’s identifying number (e.g., “Fig. 1”) on the same manuscript page that includes the figure.

Keys to symbols, if needed, should be kept as simple as possible and be positioned so they do not needlessly enlarge the figure. Details can be put into the figure legend.

Use solid symbols for plotting data if possible (unless data overlap or there are multiple symbols). For legibility when figures are reduced, symbol sizes should be a minimum of 6 points, and line widths should be a minimum of 0.5 points.

Panels should be set close to each other, and common axis labels should not be repeated.

Scales or axes should not extend beyond the range of the data plotted.All microscopic images should include scale bars, with their values shown either with the bar or in the figure legend. Do not use minor tick marks in scales or grid lines. Avoid using y-axis labels on the right that repeat those on the left.

Color-mix and contrast considerations

Avoid using red and green together. Color-blind individuals will not be able to read the figure

Do not use colors that are close to each other in hue to identify different parts of a figure.

Avoid using grayscale.

Use white type and scale bars over darker areas of images.

Typefaces and labels

Please observe the following guidelines for labels on graphs and figures:

Use a sans-serif font whenever possible (we prefer Myriad).

Simple solid or open symbols reduce well.

Label graphs on the ordinate and abscissa with the parameter or variable being measured, the units of measure in parentheses, and the scale. Scales with large or small numbers should be presented as powers of 10. (When an individual value must be presented as an exponential, use correct form: 6 × 10–3, not 6e-03.)

Avoid the use of light lines and screen shading. Instead, use black-and-white, hatched, and cross-hatched designs for emphasis.

Capitalize the first letter in a label only, not every word (and proper nouns, of course).

Units should be included in parentheses. Use SI notation. If there is room, write out variables—e.g., Pressure (MPa), Temperature (K).

Variables are always set in italics or as plain Greek letters (e.g., P,T, μ). Vectors should be set as roman boldface (rather than as italics with arrows above).

Type on top of color in a color figure should be in boldface. Avoid using color type.

When figures are assembled from multiple gels or micrographs, use a line or space to indicate the border between two original images.

Use leading zeros on all decimals—e.g., 0.3, 0.55—and only report significant digits.

Use capital letters for part labels in multipart figures – A, B, C, etc. These should be 9 point and bold in the final figure. When possible, place part labels at the upper left corner of each figure part; if a part is an image, set labels inside the perimeter so as not to waste space.

Avoid subpart labels within a figure part; instead, maintain the established sequence of part labels [e.g., use C, D, E instead of C(i), C(ii), C(iii) or C, C´, C´´]. If use of subpart labels is unavoidable, use lowercase letters (a, b, c). Use numbers (1, 2, 3) only to represent a time sequence of images.

When reproducing images that include labels with illegible computer-generated type (e.g., units for scale bars), omit such labels and present the information in the legend instead.

Modification of figures

Science Advances does not allow certain electronic enhancements or manipulations of micrographs, gels, or other digital images. Figures assembled from multiple photographs or images must indicate the separate parts with lines between them. Linear adjustment of contrast, brightness, or color must be applied to an entire image or plate equally. Nonlinear adjustments must be specified in the figure legend. Selective enhancement or alteration of one part of an image is not acceptable. In addition, Science Advances may ask authors of papers returned for revision to provide additional documentation of their primary data.

Saving your figures files for initial submission

To keep file sizes small, please save your figures at a resolution 300 dots per inch (dpi) for initial submission. (A higher resolution and a different suite of acceptable file formats applies for revised figures submitted after peer review.) Note that we cannot accept PowerPoint files or files that are not readable by Adobe Photoshop, Macromedia Freehand, or Adobe Illustrator. In some cases, higher-resolution files are necessary to properly represent data (for example, micrographs or immunocytochemistry). Contact us for further information at scienceadvanceseditorial@aaas.org

File Naming and Formats for Initial Submission

Naming your files

Our electronic submission form will only accept files with the correct extension designating the file type. Name all files starting with the last name of the first author. Follow this by an indication of whether this is the text or the figure name. The file name ends with the extension.

Unacceptable file names include smithfig1C.ps (each figure should be complete, not broken into parts) and smithtext (all files should end in a file extension).

Examples of acceptable file names:

Smithtext.doc

Smithtextfigs.pdf

Smithfig1.eps

Smithtextfigs.ps

Smithms.pdf

Smithsupp.pdf

Use double spacing throughout the text, tables, figure legends, and references. Electronic files should be formatted for U.S. letter paper. For best results, use Times and Symbol fonts only.

Acceptable file formats

Text

We prefer that the initial submission be uploaded to our electronic submission site as a Word file that contains all components of the paper. Create a single file (see above for correct order) consisting of the text, references, figures and their legends, tables and their legends, and Supplementary Materials. Supplementary Materials that cannot be incorporated into a Word file must be sent to us separately (see below).

Alternatively, you may upload your manuscript as one file that contains all of the textual material plus separate figure files (one for each figure) and separate Supplementary Material files. The text file should be a Word .docx (preferred) or .doc file.

Please use zipped files when necessary to upload unusually large supplementary files.

Figures

See the above instructions for creating your original figures. For initial submission, the figure files should be incorporated into the main text .doc or .docx file if possible. If not, they should be uploaded as separate PDFs, although the following formats are also acceptable: .eps, .ai, .psd, .tif, .pict, and .gif. Figures prepared in PowerPoint are not allowed.

Supplementary Materials

Text and figures. Include supporting text (including supplementary materials and methods, tables, and figures) at the end of the main manuscript file, in a separate section titled Supplementary Materials, if this can be easily done. Alternatively, Supplementary Materials can be included as a separate file that can be uploaded. In that case, use one of the file types specified above (.doc or .docx preferred).

Video files. Acceptable formats for videos are Quicktime, MPEG, and Flash. Keep videos short and the display window small to minimize the file size of the video. Supply caption information with the videos. Edit longer sequences into several small pieces with captions specific to each video sequence.

Audio files. Please contact the editors at scienceadvanceseditorial@aaas.org regarding submission of such file types.

Submission of your Research Article

All Research Articles should be submitted through the Science Advances Manuscript Submission Website (www.editorialmanager.com/scienceadvances). Choose the option “I want to submit a new manuscript to Science Advances”.

Submission Checklist

The following items are required for submission:

Cover letter, containing:

The title of the paper and a statement of its main point

Any information needed to ensure a fair review process, including related manuscripts submitted to other journals

Names of colleagues who have reviewed the paper

A statement that none of the material has been published or is under consideration elsewhere, including the Internet.

Names, telephone, and e-mail addresses for all authors, including selection of one to be corresponding author.

Names, affiliations, and e-mail addresses of five potential referees.

Any suggested cover illustrations.

Written permission from any author who is not an author of your manuscript but whose work is cited as a personal communication or in press. Permission must allow distribution of in-press manuscripts or relevant data to reviewers or any interested reader upon publication. A copy of an e-mail is sufficient.

Copies of any paper by you or your co-authors that is in press or under consideration elsewhere that relates to the work submitted toScience Advances, or of any paper that is cited in your paper as in press. These materials should be sent as attached PDF files in an email toscienceadvanceseditorial@aaas.orgwith the submission ID of your main manuscript upload included for reference.

Within the paper, include:

For investigations on humans, a statement indicating that informed consent was obtained after the nature and possible consequences of the studies were explained

For authors using experimental animals, a statement that the animals’ care was in accordance with institutional guidelines

A one-sentence summary of your paper

An Abstract that does not include any cited references

Definitions of all symbols, abbreviations, and acronyms

Legends for all figures and tables

All data (no use of “data not shown”; no citations of unpublished results)

Descriptions of all statistical tests

Complete references. Each citation should include all authors (do not use et al.), full article title, journal title, journal volume, year of publication, and first and last page. In place of first page number, use article number for journals that do not use page number ranges (e.g., AGU journals). If an article has been published online only, supply the DOI instead of volume and page numbers. For a source published only in conference proceedings, supply a URL.

Citation style

Science Advances uses a complete citation format that includes all authors, full titles of journal articles, the journal abbreviation, the volume, the first and last page, and the year of publication. The absolute formatting (what is bold and what is italic) is less important than having a complete citation for each journal article cited.

The abbreviations for journal names are taken from the Bibliographic Guide for Editors and Authors (BGEA) or Serial Sources for the BIOSIS Data Base *(BIOSIS), a more recent publication. When in doubt, provide the journal’s complete name. Spell out cities that are listed after a journal name: *Acta Zool. (Stockholm). Do not use op. cit., ibid., 3-m dashes, en dashes, or et al. (in place of the complete list of authors’ names). For author names with Jr. or 2nd, etc. see example number 4 in the Journals section.

In references to books or chapters in books, publisher names are given in shortened form. “Press” is usually dropped. Exceptions: Academic Press (“Academic” is an adjective), Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, National Academies Press, University Park Press, CRC Press, MIT Press, and Cambridge Univ. Press (for university presses, to distinguish them from the university itself). Only one publisher city is needed. A few world-renowned cities (for example, Amsterdam, London, Philadelphia, Chicago, New York, Baltimore) can be listed without state or country; less well-known cities and those with names that could be confused take state abbreviations (Cambridge alone for the city in the U.K., but Cambridge, MA). Inclusive page numbers or a chapter number must be given when specific articles are referred to within an edited volume.

Please use full citations in the following format (note capitalization style in article titles):

Journals

E. J. Neer, T. Kozasa, Sites for Gα binding on the G protein β subunit overlap with sites for regulation of phospholipase Cb and adenylyl cyclase. J. Biol. Chem273, 16265-16272 (1998).

D. J. Mangelsdorf, C. Thummel, M. Beato, P. Herrlich, G. Schutz, K. Umesono, B. Blumberg, P. Kastner, M. Mark, P. Chambon, R. M. Evans, The nuclear receptor superfamily: The second decade.Cell 83, 835-839 (1995).

J. J. Tesmer, R. K. Sunahara, A. G. Gilman, S. R. Sprang, Crystal structure of the catalytic domains of adenylyl cyclase in a complex with Gs•GTP-γ-S. Science 278, 1907-1916 (1997).

J. D. Brown, M. R. DiChiara, K. R. Anderson, M. A. Gimbrone Jr., J. N. Topper, MEKK-1, a component of the stress (stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase) pathway, can selectively activate Smad2-mediated transcriptional activation in endothelial cells. J. Biol. Chem. 274, 8797-8805 (1999).

J. Burton, C. K. Goldman, P. Rao, M. Moos, T. A. Waldmann, Association of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 with the multichain high-affinity interleukin 2 receptor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 7329-7333 (1990).

K. L. Clark, P. B. Larsen, X. Wang, C. Chang, Association of theArabidopsis CTR1 Raf-like kinase with the ETR1 and ERS ethylene receptors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95, 5401-5406 (1998) [published erratum appears in Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95, 9060 (1998)]. [style for published erratum]

L. C. Cantley, PI3K pathway. Sci. Signal. (Connections Map in the Database of Cell Signaling, as seen February 2001), www.stke.org/cgi/cm/CMP_6557. [style for citing a pathway in the Database of Cell Signaling at Science Signaling]

H. R. de Jonge, B. Hogema, B. C. Tilly, Protein N-myristoylation: Critical role in apoptosis and salt tolerance. Sci. STKE 2000, pe1 (2000). [style for citing a Science’s STKE paper; note: volume and year are the same]

E. Canalis, Notch signaling in osteoblasts. Sci. Signal. 1, pe17 (2008). [style for citing a Science Signaling article published following title change in January 2008]

X. Wan, P. G. Corn, J. Yang, N. Palanisamy, M. W. Starbuck, E. Efstathiou, E. M. L.-N. Tapia, A. J. Zurita, A. Aparicio, M. K. Ravoori, E. S. Vazquez, D. R. Robinson, Y.-M. Wu, X. Cao, M. K. Iyer, W. McKeehan, V. Kundra, F. Wang, P. Troncoso, A. M. Chinnaiyan, C. J. Logothetis, N. M. Navone, Prostate cancer cell–stromal cell crosstalk via FGFR1 mediates antitumor activity of dovitinib in bone metastases. Sci. Transl. Med. 6, 252ra122 (2014). [style for citing a Science Translational Medicine article]

Technical reports

D. E. Shaw, Technical Report CUCS-29-82 (Columbia University, New York, 1982).

F. Press, A Report on the Computational Needs for Physics(National Science Foundation, Washington, DC, 1981). [unpublished or access by title]

Assessment of the Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity of Chemicals(WHO Technical Report Series No. 556, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1974).

Proceedings

Title of Symposium Published as a Book, sponsoring organization, city and state of meeting, inclusive dates and year (publisher, publisher’s city and state, year).

Paper presented at a meeting (not published)

M. Konishi, paper presented at the 14th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, Anaheim, CA, 10 to 14 October 1984. [sponsoring organization should be mentioned if it is not part of the meeting name]

Theses

B. Smith, thesis, Georgetown University (1973).

Books

A. M. Lister, Fundamentals of Operating Systems (Springer-Verlag, New York, ed. 3, 1984). [third edition]

J. B. Carroll, Ed., Language, Thought and Reality, Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1956).

R. Davis, J. King, in Machine Intelligence, E. Acock, R. Michie, Eds. (Wiley, New York, 1976), vol. 8, chap. 3.

D. Curtis, in Clinical Neurology of Development, B. Walters, Ed. (Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 1983), pp. 60-73.

Principles and Procedures for Evaluating the Toxicity of Household Substances (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, 1977). [organization as author and publisher]