Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • Supplementary Materials and Methods
  • fig. S1. Impact of organic agriculture on production, farmer livelihood, farm worker livelihood, and consumer access (as depicted in Figs. 1A and 3), as well as water quality and climate change mitigation variables per unit output (as depicted in Fig. 1B), as observed by different meta-analyses and quantitative reviews that is, de Ponti et al. (20), Ponisio et al. (19), Seufert et al. (18), Crowder and Reganold (81), Mondelaers et al. (41), Tuomisto et al. (40), Skinner et al. (54), and Gomiero et al. (12).
  • fig. S2. Impact of organic agriculture on biodiversity, soil quality, water quality, and climate change mitigation variables per unit area (as depicted in Figs. 1A and 3), as observed by different meta-analyses and quantitative reviews that is, Bengtsson et al. (31), Crowder et al. (30), Tuck et al. (32), Tuomisto et al. (40), Mondelaers et al. (41), Gattinger et al. (39), Skinner et al. (54), and Gomiero et al. (12).
  • fig. S3. Difference in content of individual secondary metabolites, and vitamin groups in organic versus conventional plant foods, as observed by different meta-analyses and quantitative reviews that is, Barański et al. (102), Brandt et al. (101), Dangour et al. (104), Hunter et al. (100), and Worthington (103).
  • fig. S4. Difference in content of individual mineral micronutrients and macronutrients in organic versus conventional plant foods, as observed by different meta-analyses and quantitative reviews that is, Barański et al. (102), Dangour et al. (104), Hunter et al. (100), and Worthington (103).
  • fig. S5. Difference in content of aggregated secondary metabolites, vitamins, mineral micronutrients and macronutrients, and pesticide residues in organic versus conventional plant foods, as observed by different meta-analyses and
    quantitative reviews that is, Barański et al. (102), Brandt et al. (101), Dangour et al. (104), Hunter et al. (100), Smith-Spangler et al. (105), and Worthington (103).
  • fig. S6. Uncertainty in different variables (per unit area) on production benefits and costs (brown), environmental benefits and costs (green), producer benefits and costs (red), and consumer benefits and costs (blue), based on quantitative reviews of the organic literature.
  • table S1. Sources used for variables that could be quantified in Figs. 1 and 3.
  • table S2. Variables influencing the organic-conventional yield gap according to different meta-analyses that is, Seufert et al. (18), de Ponti et al. (20), and Ponisio et al. (19) and large-scale census data analyses Kniss et al. (21).
  • table S3. Variables influencing the difference in biodiversity between organic and conventional agriculture according to different meta-analyses that is, Tuck et al. (32) and Kennedy et al. (33) and large-scale primary studies that is, Schneider et al. (34).
  • References (127–129)

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