Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • Legends for movies S1 to S5
  • section S1. Experimental section.
  • section S2. Coarse-grained computational model for SNF/HAP assembly and deposition.
  • section S3. The self-assembly process and structure of SNFs.
  • section S4. Synthesis of HAP nanocrystals via biomineralization approach.
  • section S5. Multilayer membrane formation and their properties.
  • section S6. Multilayer structure of SNF/HAP membrane.
  • section S7. Multitypes of SNF/HAP multilayer membranes.
  • section S8. Mechanical model of SNF/HAP membrane for water filtration.
  • section S9. Dye separation and adsorption performance of SNF/HAP membranes.
  • section S10. Heavy metal ion removal performance of SNF/HAP membranes.
  • section S11. Recycling of metal ion contaminants captured by SNF/HAP membrane via green postprocessing approaches.
  • section S12. Comparing the costs and maximum sorption capacities of SNF/HAP membranes with other nanoadsorbents.
  • fig. S1. Schematic figure of the coarse-grained computational model for HAP and SNF.
  • fig. S2. Simulation setups and related parameters for SNF/HAP assembly and deposition modeling.
  • fig. S3. Distributions of the mass ratio between HAP and SNF as functions of the coordinate along the membrane thickness direction for the three membranes assembled with different γ values.
  • fig. S4. Distributions of the mass ratio between NP and NF as functions of the coordinate along the membrane thickness direction for the 15 membranes assembled with different γ values.
  • fig. S5. Visual appearance and AFM image of SNFs.
  • fig. S6. XRD profile and Fourier transform infrared spectrum of biomineralized HAP nanocrystals.
  • fig. S7. SEM image of biomineralized HAP nanocrystals.
  • fig. S8. SF solution induced the growth of HAP at 37°C for 1 week.
  • fig. S9. Mesostructure of SNF/HAP solution after liquid nitrogen freezing and freeze-drying.
  • fig. S10. Linear relationship between the volume of SNF/HAP solution and the resultant membrane thickness.
  • fig. S11. Images of SNF/HAP membranes after moving from the substrate with a thickness of 4 μm.
  • fig. S12. Stress-strain curves of as-cast SNF/HAP membrane with a thickness of 37 μm.
  • fig. S13. Multilayer structure of nacre.
  • fig. S14. SEM images of SNF/HAP membranes.
  • fig. S15. Elemental analysis of the cross-sectional SNF/HAP membranes.
  • fig. S16. Multitypes of SNF/HAP multilayer membranes.
  • fig. S17. Schematic of SNF/HAP multilayer filtration membrane.
  • fig. S18. Calculation of SNF and HAP thickness via power-law fittings.
  • fig. S19. Comparison of theory fluxes of pure SNF, HAP, and SNF/HAP membranes with similar thicknesses.
  • fig. S20. Rejection of 10 ml of 5 μM Rhodamine B aqueous solution with different thicknesses of the SNF/HAP membranes.
  • fig. S21. Relationship between pressure and pure water flux of ejection of 37-μm-thick SNF/HAP membrane.
  • fig. S22. The rejection of 10 ml of 5 μM Rhodamine B aqueous solution for 37-μm-thick SNF/HAP membrane with different applied pressures.
  • fig. S23. Relationship between membrane thickness and adsorbed dye content.
  • fig. S24. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms of dye adsorption on SNF/HAP membranes.
  • fig. S25. UV-vis spectra of starting and retentate solution of Rhodamine B and Congo Red.
  • fig. S26. SNF/HAP membrane used for large-volume permeate filtration.
  • fig. S27. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms of Au3+, Cu2+, Ni2+, and Cr3+ adsorption on SNF/HAP nanocomposites.
  • fig. S28. Kinetic curves of SNF/HAP nanocomposites for removing metal ions.
  • fig. S29. Redispersion of SNF/HAP membranes after filtration with Au3+ ions.
  • fig. S30. Recycling of metal ion contaminants via green postprocessing approaches.
  • table S1. Numerical values of the physical parameters of the coarse-grained model.
  • table S2. Numerical values of the physical parameters of the five coarse-grained models of NF and NP with the variation of the stiffness and density.
  • table S3. Numerical values of the membrane.
  • table S4. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm parameters of dye adsorption on SNF/HAP nanocomposites.
  • table S5. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm parameters of metal ion adsorption on SNF/HAP nanocomposites.
  • table S6. Kinetic parameters of second-order adsorption kinetic models for metal ions on SNF/HAP nanocomposites.
  • table S7. Estimated total cost for preparing 1 g of nanoadsorbents.
  • table S8. Maximum sorption capacities of metal ions with different nanomaterials.
  • References (54–101)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • movie S1 (.mov format). Movie of MD simulation of the SNF/HAP assembly process during deposition, with surface energy γ set as 0 J/m2.
  • movie S2 (.mov format). Movie of MD simulation of the SNF/HAP assembly process during deposition, with surface energy γ set as 0.217 J/m2.
  • movie S3 (.mov format). Movie of MD simulation of the SNF/HAP assembly process during deposition, with surface energy γ set as 0.53 J/m2.
  • movie S4 (.mov format). Movie of preparation of SNF/HAP syringe ultrafilters.
  • movie S5 (.mov format). Movie showing that top-down prepared SNF dispersions are directly passing through the 5-μm syringe macrofilter.

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