Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • fig. S1. Distance to the seafloor in different directions measured by an individual ADCP beam at the up-canyon 2013a site and the down-canyon 2013b site in 2013.
  • fig. S2. Illustration of the method used to calculate flow front velocity.
  • fig. S3. Raw backscatter plot.
  • fig. S4. The bed echo attenuation for 300- and 75-kHz ADCP during the turbidity current.
  • fig. S5. Sediment attenuation coefficient (ξ) for 300- and 75-kHz frequencies, by particles with diameters between 1 and 1000 μm.
  • fig. S6. Difference between the bed echo attenuation (Abed) and the predicted cumulative echo attenuation (Aprofile) within the water column from the 75-kHz ADCP data.
  • fig. S7. The suspended grain size results derived from the comparison between the 75-kHz ADCP bed echo.
  • fig. S8. Cores from floor of Congo Canyon.
  • fig. S9. Sediment concentration (g/liter) derived using the ADCP backscatter magnitudes.
  • fig. S10. The calibration constant Kt.
  • fig. S11. Bed shear stresses generated by the flow.
  • fig. S12. Comparisons of the instantaneous sediment and water discharges in the Congo Canyon turbidity current shown in Fig. 2, with the mean annual discharges of water and sediment in major rivers.
  • fig. S13. Comparison of turbidity current arrival times with possible triggering factors in the Congo Canyon.
  • fig. S14. Increase in flow duration caused by flow stretching, which is due to a difference in the speed of the front and tail of the flow.
  • table S1. Flow durations, thicknesses, and peak velocity measured at heights in excess of 18 m above the bed in 2013.

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