Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • Additional experimental details
  • Raman spectra of the functionalized graphene
  • AFM characterization of the functionalized graphene
  • XPS characterization of functionalized graphene
  • Optical and SEM imaging of the self-folding graphene structures
  • Raman spectra of folded graphene
  • Cell encapsulation and Raman analysis
  • Full atomistic modeling of the folding behaviors
  • Electrical properties of folded graphene structures
  • fig. S1. Raman spectra of PD with different thickness (self-polymerization
    for 2 and 4 hours) on the Si substrate.
  • fig. S2. Surface morphology of graphene and functionalized graphene.
  • fig. S3. Chemical composition of functionalized graphene studied by XPS.
  • fig. S4. High-resolution O1s XPS spectra and peak fitting (dotted lines) of graphene, G-PD, and G-PD-PNIPAM.
  • fig. S5. Effect of the rigid hinge on the self-folding of functionalized graphene box.
  • fig. S6. Characterization of the self-folding graphene microstructures using SEM.
  • fig. S7. Highly parallel self-folding of ultrathin 3D graphene microstructures.
  • fig. S8. Control experiments of self-folding on pristine graphene and G-PD.
  • fig. S9. Self-folding of functionalized graphene with 5 nm thickness.
  • fig. S10. The folding process of half-functionalized graphene dumbbell with increasing temperature.
  • fig. S11. Raman spectra of a graphene flower in the flat and folded regions.
  • fig. S12. Cell viability with the live/dead assay.
  • fig. S13. Single cell encapsulation and Raman study.
  • fig. S14. Initial configuration of the PNIPAM-water system in the MD model.
  • fig. S15. Top view of the aggregation behavior of an array of (36 chains in total) PNIPAM brushes at different temperatures in MD simulations.
  • fig. S16. Comparison between the coarse-grained MD model and the experiment results for a functionalized graphene flower with different size.
  • fig. S17. The effect of mechanical properties of the two layers on self-folding.
  • fig. S18. Electrical measurements on pristine graphene and functionalized graphene dumbbell.
  • fig. S19. Dimension of the folding crease measured by AFM.
  • fig. S20. Output and transfer curves of the pristine and functionalized graphene FET.
  • table S1. XPS data analysis of graphene, G-PD, and G-PD-PNIPAM at the C1s, N1s, and O1s peaks.
  • table S2. Tensile test results of PNIPAM from the MD simulations.

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