Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • Supplementary Methods and Data
  • fig. S1. Disk masses produced by N = 5 × 105-particle SPH impact simulations with differentiated impactors having masses Mimp = 0.03 MM (circles) and 0.003 MM (triangles), shown as a function of the scaled impact parameter, equal to the sin of the impact angle where 90° is a grazing impact.
  • fig. S2. Properties of disks produced by N = 1.4 × 106-particle SPH impact simulations with undifferentiated impactors having masses Mimp = 3 × 10−3 MM (circles), 10−3 MM (triangles), and 0.5 × 10−3 MM (squares).
  • fig. S3. Schematic of particle splitting.
  • fig. S4. Instantaneous disk mass calculated at various times in three SPH simulations of the same impact but performed with 105 equal-mass SPH particles (blue curve), 105 particles plus particle splitting of the impactor and ejected material (gray curve), and 106 equal-mass particles (orange curve).
  • fig. S5. Orbital elements of disk particles from the three SPH simulations shown in fig. S4, which model the same impact with 105 particles (top, blue points), 105 particles + particle splitting of the ejected material (middle, gray points), and 106 particles (bottom, orange points).
  • fig. S6. Fate of material in Fig. 2 simulation.
  • fig. S7. Snapshots of the evolution of the initial disk from Run 73 (table S1).
  • fig. S8. Snapshots of the evolution of the initial disk from Run 86 (table S1).
  • table S1. Accretion simulation data.
  • References (36–38)

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