Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

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  • Methods: Mechanics model of the swelling-induced deformations
  • fig. S1. Illustration of the sandwich configuration and two different placements of the hydrogel layer relative to the supporting layer.
  • fig. S2. Deformations of a straight sandwich structure during the hydration and dehydration processes.
  • fig. S3. Distribution of the maximum principal strain for a representative unit cell of the network material at the different stages of hydration and dehydration processes, corresponding to the different states shown in Fig. 1C.
  • fig. S4. Distribution of the maximum principal strain for the network structure at the different stages of uniaxial stretching, corresponding to the different states shown in Fig. 1G.
  • fig. S5. Illustration of the mechanics model of the swelling-induced deformations and results on the swelling-induced strains.
  • fig. S6. Deformations of the network materials during hydration.
  • fig. S7. Effect of the filling ratio on the swelling-induced strains of the network materials with straight microstructures (that is, arc angle θ = 0°).
  • fig. S8. Soft network materials with anisotropic positive swelling ratios.
  • fig. S9. FEA and experiment results on the swelling-induced deformations for the four designs in Fig. 3 (B to E).
  • fig. S10. FEA and experiment results on the swelling-induced deformations for the two designs in fig. S8.
  • fig. S11. Experimental (left) and computational (right) results on the deformation sequences of a hydrated (~45 min) network material under a uniaxial stretching along the y direction, as in Fig. 4C.
  • fig. S12. Tunable elastic modulus and critical strain of the soft network materials.
  • fig. S13. Measured mechanical properties of the constituent materials.
  • fig. S14. Measured configurations of a representative network sample (that is, the initial state of Fig. 1G) after it was taken from the water and put in the air environment under a natural convection condition for 0, 30, and 60 min.
  • fig. S15. Computed swelling-induced strain (εx-swelling or εy-swelling) versus the dimensionless swelling ratio of the hydrogel.
  • fig. S16. Experimental demonstration of the network materials with two different scaling factors, with the sample in Fig. 2F to serve as a reference.

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