Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • section S1. Materials and methods
  • section S2. Procedure for the catalyst preparation (fig. S1).
  • section S3. TEM and EDX data (fig. S2 to S5)
  • section S4. XRD diffraction patterns and data (figs. S6 to S10)
  • section S5. XPS spectra and data (fig. S11)
  • section S6. Elemental analysis of the catalysts and BET (fig. S12)
  • section S7. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA; figs. S13 and S14)
  • section S8. Procedures for hydrogenation reactions (figs. S15 and S16)
  • section S9. Product characterization
  • section S10. Procedures for dehydrogenation reactions (figs. S17 to S19)
  • section S11. Catalyst recycling
  • section S12. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral charts
  • fig. S1. Ni-phen@SiO2-1000 after pyrolysis.
  • fig. S2. TEM images of the Ni-phen@SiO2-1000.
  • fig. S3. ABF and HAADF-STEM images of intermetallic nickel silicide catalyst Ni-phen@SiO2-1000.
  • fig. S4. HAADF-STEM and EDX measurement of the intermetallic nickel silicide catalyst Ni-phen@SiO2-1000.
  • fig. S5. ABF-, HAADF-STEM, and EDX measurement of the catalyst Ni@SiO2-1000 prepared without ligand.
  • fig. S6. Powder pattern of nickel-based catalysts supported on fumed silica.
  • fig. S7. Powder pattern of Ni-phen@SiO2-800 measured up to 148°2θ.
  • fig. S8. Powder pattern of various nickel-based catalysts with different ligands (S2.3).
  • fig. S9. Powder pattern of various nickel-based catalysts on various supports.
  • fig. S10. Powder pattern of nickel catalyst on silica gel and quartz (S2.3).
  • fig. S11. XPS measurement of the intermetallic nickel silicide catalyst.
  • fig. S12. N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms and BJH desorption pore size distribution.
  • fig. S13. TG-DSC-MS analysis of Ni-phen@SiO2-1000.
  • fig. S14. TG-DSC-MS analysis of Ni-phen@SiO2-1000.
  • fig. S15. Autoclave and glass vials used for hydrogenations.
  • fig S16. Concentration/time diagram for the hydrogenation of benzonitrile.
  • fig. S17. Manual burette setup.
  • fig. S18. Gas evolution from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinaldine.
  • fig. S19. Gas composition analysis by GC.
  • table S1. Elemental analysis of the studied catalysts.
  • table S2. BET surface area and pore volume of the samples.
  • table S3. Hydrogenation of the standard substrates (Table 1 in the main text).
  • table S4. Hydrogenation of the nitrobenzene with SiO2-supported catalysts.
  • table S5. Recycling experiments.
  • table S6. Nickel leaching in the recycling experiments.
  • table S7. Effect of the pH on hydrogenation of nitrobenzene.

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