Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

This PDF file includes:

  • section S1. Materials and analytical techniques for MOF synthesis and analysis
  • section S2. MOF-801 synthesis and characterization
  • section S3. MOF-801/G preparation and characterization
  • section S4. MOF-303 synthesis and characterization
  • section S5. MOF-303/G preparation and characterization
  • section S6. Comparison of sorbents
  • section S7. Water harvester
  • section S8. Data acquisition and sensors
  • section S9. WHC under laboratory conditions
  • section S10. Harvesting experiments at Scottsdale, AZ, under desert conditions
  • section S11. Chemical analysis of collected water samples and MOF chemicalstability
  • section S12. Movies of the water production experiment
  • fig. S1. PXRD pattern of activated MOF-801.
  • fig. S2. SEM image of activated MOF-801.
  • fig. S3. SEM and EDS images of MOF-801.
  • fig. S4. N2 isotherm of activated MOF-801 recorded at 77 K.
  • fig. S5. Water sorption isotherms of pre–scaled-up MOF-801 sample (black, this work), MOF-801-P (red), and MOF-801-SC (blue) (7).
  • fig. S6. Water sorption isotherms of pre–scaled-up MOF-801 recorded at different temperatures.
  • fig. S7. Characteristic curves for activated pre–scaled-up MOF-801 determined using Eqs. 2 and 3 based on the sorption isotherms measured at different temperatures.
  • fig. S8. Isosteric heat of adsorption (black) and water sorption isotherm at 25°C (red) for activated MOF-801.
  • fig. S9. Experimental water sorption isotherm for activated scaled-up MOF-801 recorded at 25°C and calculated water sorption isotherms at 15 and 85°C.
  • fig. S10. PXRD pattern of the graphite sample.
  • fig. S11. PXRD pattern of activated sample of MOF-801/G.
  • fig. S12. SEM and EDS images of MOF-801/G.
  • fig. S13. N2 isotherm of the activated MOF-801/G recorded at 77 K.
  • fig. S14. Experimental water sorption isotherm for MOF-801/G at 25°C and calculated water sorption isotherms at 15° and 85°C.
  • fig. S15. Comparison of water sorption isotherms for scaled-up MOF-801 and MOF-801/G at 25°C.
  • fig. S16. Asymmetric unit in the single-crystal structure of MOF-303 (atoms are shown isotropically).
  • fig. S17. PXRD pattern of activated MOF-303.
  • fig. S18. SEM image of activated MOF-303.
  • fig. S19. SEM and EDS images of MOF-303.
  • fig. S20. N2 isotherm of activated scaled-up MOF-303 at 77 K.
  • fig. S21. Water sorption isotherm of pre–scaled-up activated MOF-303 recorded at 25°C.
  • fig. S22. Cycling experiment of MOF-303.
  • fig. S23. Water sorption isotherms of activated scaled-up MOF-303 at different temperatures.
  • fig. S24. One hundred fifty cycles of RH swing cycling of scaled-up activated MOF-303 at 25°C in a TGA.
  • fig. S25. Characteristic curves determined using Eqs. 2 and 3 based on sorption isotherms for MOF-303 measured at different temperatures.
  • fig. S26. Isosteric heat of adsorption (black) versus water sorption isotherm at 25°C (red) for activated MOF-303.
  • fig. S27. Experimental water sorption isotherm for activated scaled-up MOF-303 at 25°C and calculated water isotherms at 15° and 85°C.
  • fig. S28. PXRD pattern of activated sample of MOF-303/G.
  • fig. S29. SEM and EDS images of MOF-303/G.
  • fig. S30. N2 isotherm of activated MOF-303/G at 77 K.
  • fig. S31. Experimental water sorption isotherm for MOF-303/G at 25°C and calculated water isotherms at 15° and 85°C.
  • fig. S32. Comparison of water sorption isotherms of scaled-up MOF-303 and MOF-303/G at 25°C.
  • fig. S33. PXRD pattern of zeolite 13X.
  • fig. S34. N2 isotherm of zeolite 13X recorded at 77 K.
  • fig. S35. Experimental water sorption isotherm for zeolite 13X at 25°C and calculated water isotherms at 15° and 85°C.
  • fig. S36. Schematic of insulation cell used for solar flux–temperature response measurements.
  • fig. S37. The increase of the sample temperature with time under a flux of 1000 W m−2 for MOF-801 and MOF-801/G.
  • fig. S38. The increase of the sample temperature with time under a flux of 1000 W m−2 for MOF-303 and MOF-303/G.
  • fig. S39. Diffuse reflectance spectra of zeolite 13X, MOF-801, MOF-801/G, MOF-303, and MOF-303/G recorded between 285 and 2500 nm.
  • fig. S40. Absorption spectra of zeolite 13X, MOF-801, MOF-801/G, MOF-303, and MOF-303/G between 285 and 2500 nm.
  • fig. S41. Comparison of water sorption kinetics for zeolite 13X, MOF-801, MOF-303, MOF-801/G, and MOF-303/G.
  • fig. S42. The temperature response with time under a flux of 1000 W m−2 measured for circular pieces of PMMA (diameter, 20 mm) with a thickness of 1/4″ and 1/8″.
  • fig. S43. The temperature response with time under a flux of 1000 W m−2 measured for circular pieces of PMMA (diameter, 20 mm) of the same thickness (1/4″) coated with a white (red) and clear coating (black).
  • fig. S44. The temperature response with time under a flux of 1000 W m−2 measured for circular pieces of PMMA (diameter, 20 mm) of the same thickness (1/4″) coated with solar absorber coating (Pyromark paint).
  • fig. S45. Absorption of PMMA (blue) compared to the spectral irradiance of the sun (red) and an incandescent lamp (orange) between 285 and 3000 nm.
  • fig. S46. Comparison of absorption spectra for PMMA (light blue), PMMA coated with primer (light gray), and PMMA coated with white paint (orange).
  • fig. S47. Water sorption unit.
  • fig. S48. Schematic of the case, cover, and water sorption unit with dimensions.
  • fig. S49. Locations of thermocouples and humidity sensors inside the case.
  • fig. S50. Calibration curve for humidity sensor converting the voltage output readings into the corresponding RH.
  • fig. S51. Calibration curve for the temperature sensor.
  • fig. S52. Artificial solar irradiance for low flux condition.
  • fig. S53. Artificial solar irradiance for high flux condition.
  • fig. S54. Image of the artificial flux generator in two lamps configuration.
  • fig. S55. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for empty sorbent container under low flux artificial solar irradiance.
  • fig. S56. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 0.25 kg graphite under low flux artificial solar irradiance.
  • fig. S57. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 0.5 kg of zeolite 13X under low flux artificial solar irradiance.
  • fig. S58. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 0.5 kg of zeolite 13X under high flux artificial solar irradiance.
  • fig. S59. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 1.65 kg of MOF-801/G under low flux artificial solar irradiance.
  • fig. S60. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 1.65 kg of MOF-801/G under high flux artificial solar irradiance.
  • fig. S61. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 0.825 kg of MOF-801/G under low flux artificial solar irradiance.
  • fig. S62. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 0.825 kg of MOF-801/G under high flux artificial solar irradiance.
  • fig. S63. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 0.412 kg of MOF-801/G under low flux artificial solar irradiance.
  • fig. S64. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 0.412 kg of MOF-801/G under high flux artificial solar irradiance.
  • fig. S65. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 0.600 kg of MOF-303/G under low flux artificial solar irradiance.
  • fig. S66. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 0.600 kg of MOF-303/G under high flux artificial solar irradiance.
  • fig. S67. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 0.600 kg of MOF-801/G under low flux artificial solar irradiance and controlled saturation conditions.
  • fig. S68. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 0.600 kg of MOF-303/G under low flux artificial solar irradiance and controlled saturation conditions.
  • fig. S69. Water sorption isotherms for MOF-801/G.
  • fig. S70. Schematic of energy flow on the top surface of the water sorption unit.
  • fig. S71. Variations of qsensible with the release and capture temperature for four values of packing porosities of 0.85, 0.75, 0.65, and 0.55.
  • fig. S72. Variations of radiative heat loss with MOF-801/G temperature for different values of emissivity.
  • fig. S73. Variations of the temperature of MOF-801/G and the cover.
  • fig. S74. Comparison of qH (with and without heat losses) and the amount of MOF-801/G to the latent and sensible energy per kilogram of MOF-801/G.
  • fig. S75. Variations of the size of the cooling surface with the amount of MOF-810/G for a temperature of 65°C for the released water, a condenser temperature
of 20° and 40°C, and average heat condensation Nusselt numbers of 3.36 and 1.18.
  • fig. S76. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 1.65 kg of MOF-801/G under desert conditions.
  • fig. S77. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 0.825 kg of MOF-801/G under desert conditions.
  • fig. S78. Schematic of the exterior insulation (soil) surrounding the case of the water harvester in desert climate.
  • fig. S79. 1H-NMR spectrum of pure D2O before heating.
  • fig. S80. 1H-NMR spectrum of pure D2O after heating.
  • fig. S81. 1H-NMR spectrum of MOF-801 in D2O before heating.
  • fig. S82. 1H-NMR spectrum of MOF-801 in D2O after heating.
  • fig. S83. 1H-NMR spectra of MOF-801 in D2O: Overlay of before/after heating.
  • fig. S84. 1H-NMR spectrum of water collected using 0.825 kg of MOF-801/G.
  • fig. S85. 1H-NMR spectrum of MOF-303 in D2O before heating.
  • fig. S86. 1H-NMR spectrum of MOF-303 in D2O after heating.
  • fig. S87. 1H-NMR spectra of MOF-303 in D2O: Overlay of before/after heating.
  • fig. S88. 1H-NMR spectrum of water collected using 0.600 kg of MOF-303/G.
  • fig. S89. The calibration curve for zirconium standard solutions.
  • fig. S90. The calibration curve for aluminum standard solutions.
  • table S1. Crystal data and structure determination for MOF-303 with single crystal data set.
  • table S2. Atomic positions for MOF-303 from the Pawley refinement model.
  • table S3. The average hemispherical absorptivity and transmissivity of materials for artificial and solar radiation within the range of 285 to 2500 nm.
  • table S4. Test conditions for the water harvesting in the laboratory.
  • table S5. The performance parameters for water production under laboratory conditions.
  • table S6. Total flux received by different sorbents for the laboratory experiment using low and high fluxes.
  • Legends for movies S1 to S4
  • References (24–32)
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    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • movie S1 (.mp4 format). Initial stage of water condensation on the side walls of the case at 10,000% speed.
    • movie S2 (.mp4 format). Formation of running droplets of water on the side walls of the case at 10,000% speed.
    • movie S3 (.mp4 format). Coalescence of water droplets into puddles of liquid water at the condenser at 700% speed.
    • movie S4 (.mp4 format). Collision of puddles of liquid water at the bottom of the case at 1000% speed.

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