Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Note S1. FEA and CFD
  • Note S2. Validation of the scaling law
  • Note S3. Deriving the scaling law (Eq. 2)
  • Note S4. Solution to the fluid properties and accuracy analysis
  • Note S5. Measurement of fluidic viscosity by commercial rheometer
  • Note S6. Stretching and releasing substrates
  • Fig. S1. Schematic illustration of procedures for fabricating PZT nanomembrane inks.
  • Fig. S2. Schematic illustration of the transfer printing of PZT actuators and the fabrication of 2D precursors.
  • Fig. S3. Transfer printing of the 2D precursors and the assembly process by compressive bulking.
  • Fig. S4. Parameter study on the maximum principal strain in PZT and electrode.
  • Fig. S5. Perspective views of the 3D architectures with integrated PZT nanomembranes.
  • Fig. S6. Optical images of the perspective and top views of the 3D architectures with integrated PZT nanomembranes.
  • Fig. S7. 2D precursors of the structures in Fig. 2.
  • Fig. S8. Distribution of the maximum principal strain in SU-8 for the structures in Fig. 2.
  • Fig. S9. Illustration of the PZT actuation for the vibration modes shown in Fig. 3 and fig. S10.
  • Fig. S10. Dynamics of 3D architectures with multiple modes excited by PZT nanomembranes.
  • Fig. S11. Dependence of the resonant frequency on the geometry/material parameters.
  • Fig. S12. Dynamic response in fluids.
  • Fig. S13. Validation of the scaling law (Eq. 1).
  • Fig. S14. Validation of the scaling law (Eq. 2) in the case when the Reynolds number is far larger than 1.
  • Fig. S15. Geometrical parameters and the vibration modes for the cantilever example shown in Fig. 4 (F and G).
  • Fig. S16. Accuracy of the measured fluid density and viscosity.
  • Fig. S17. Measured density of the water-glycerol mixture with 66.7% glycerol volume fraction when the temperature ranges from 24° to 42.9°C.
  • Fig. S18. Apparatus for the measurements of vibrational modes in fluids at various temperatures.
  • Fig. S19. Shear rate dependence of the viscosities of the biofluids measured by the commercial rheometer, m-VROC viscometer.
  • Fig. S20. Schematic illustration and dimension of the fluidic channel of the commercial rheometer, m-VROC viscometer.
  • Legends for movies S1 and S2

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Assembly of 3D active mesostructures.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Vibrational modes.

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