Science Advances

Supplementary Materials

The PDF file includes:

  • Supporting Methods
  • Fig. S1. Characteristic dynamics of the order parameter for representative droplets.
  • Fig. S2. The effect of droplet diameter and cell swimming speed on the probability of different flow patterns.
  • Fig. S3. Model predictions for the effect of bacterial length on the flow dynamics.
  • Fig. S4. Counterrotations are not affected by che mutants.
  • Fig. S5. The effect of volume fraction on the probability of different flow patterns.
  • Fig. S6. The effect of fluid viscosity on the probability of different flow patterns.
  • Fig. S7. The effect of growth time on single-cell velocities.
  • Table S1. Model parameters.
  • Legends for movies S1 to S5
  • References (3137)

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Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

  • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Confined E. coli forms microspin cycles.
  • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Simulations of our two-phase model for collective motion of bacteria predict two types of flows for a given set of parameters, either periodic reversals or stable vertical flow, which depend on the initial conditions.
  • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). E. coli cells treated with cephalexin are longer and, for cells over 3.0 μm in length, will produce counterrotating vortices reminiscent of B. subtilis.
  • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). Confined E. coli mutants form microspin cycles.
  • Movie S5 (.avi format). The bacterial membranes were stained with the fluorescent dye FM 4-64.

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