Table 2 Elevation of “highly conservative” and “conservative” modern vertebrate extinction rates above background rate of 2 E/MSY (see table S2 for calculations).

For each assessment category, two periods are shown: extinction rates computed from 1500 to the present, and from 1900 to the present.

Animal groupElevation of modern rates with
respect to expected rates
Highly conservativeConservative
Since 1500Since 1900Since 1500Since 1900
Vertebrates8221553
Mammals14282055
Birds13241534
Reptiles58824
Amphibians52222100
Fishes5231256