High-impact papers
Top 5% of citations in a paper’s field
  1950–2000BIC drops from 4,502,525 to 4,257,045 when Dμ
and Dθ are added in the model
  1990–2000BIC drops from 2,001,497 to 1,884,133 when Dμ
and Dθ are added in the model
  1980–1989BIC drops from 1,213,883 to 1,147,347 when Dμ
and Dθ are added in the model
Top 1% of citations in a paper’s field
  1950–2000BIC drops from 1,427,176 to 1,141,414 when Dμ
and Dθ are added in the model
  1990–2000BIC drops from 542,014 to 508,325 when Dμ and
Dθ are added in the model
  1980–1989BIC drops from 324,438 to 305,732 when Dμ and
Dθ are added in the model
High-impact patents
Top 5% of citations in a patent’s field
  1980–2000BIC drops from 589,218 to 582,978 when Dμ and
Dθ are added in the model
  1990–2000BIC drops from 399,672 to 395,771 when Dμ and
Dθ are added in the model
  1980–1989BIC drops from 225,631 to 223,843 when Dμ and
Dθ are added in the model
Top 1% of citations in a patent’s field
  1980–2000BIC drops from 160,756 to 159,132.6 when Dμ
and Dθ are added in the model
  1990–2000BIC drops from 105,391 to 104,316 when Dμ and
Dθ are added in the model
  1980–1989BIC drops from 68,556 to 66,992 when Dμ and Dθ
are added in the model