Table 1 Event names, event abbreviations, and data used to construct Figs. 2 and 3.

Values of δ1 and Δr are given in per mil (‰) and derive from the formula δ1 = 1000 × (RRstd)/Rstd, where abundance ratios R = 13C/12C are obtained from samples of inorganic (carbonate) carbon and Rstd is a standard ratio. The variables Δr, τenv, φ, and M are defined in the text. In Fig. 2, the six Eocene and four Miocene events are denoted by Eo and Mio, respectively.

Event nameAbbreviationDate[Ma]δ1(0)δ1env)Δrτenv[My]φM
Ediacaran-CambrianEdi541.002.50−4.00−6.502.0000.322.302
Nemakit-Daldynian-TommotianNDT524.365.00−3.00−8.000.9820.411.450
Cambrian SpiceSpice497.004.301.30−3.001.0000.120.443
End-OrdovicianOrd445.804.90−0.70−5.600.2300.420.344
Silurian MuldeMul428.204.001.00−3.000.2600.190.181
Silurian LauLau423.507.001.00−6.000.5000.300.538
Frasnian-FamennianFF372.203.502.00−1.501.5400.060.311
TournaisianTou351.555.602.10−3.501.5100.130.727
Mid-CapitanianCap262.454.00−1.00−5.000.5000.270.480
End-PermianPT251.944.00−1.50−5.500.0601.130.243
Early TriassicTr251.222.00−1.50−3.500.2500.260.228
Triassic-JurassicTJ201.640.00−2.00−2.000.0500.490.087
ToarcianToar182.602.10−0.90−3.000.1500.290.157
AptianApt120.212.951.80−1.150.0470.260.043
Albian-CenomanianAl/Cn100.502.501.80−0.700.1100.080.030
Mid-CenomanianmCn95.903.102.25−0.850.1380.080.038
Cenomanian-TuronianCT94.205.303.70−1.600.5530.070.135
Cretaceous-PaleogeneKT65.503.131.98−1.150.0260.440.041
Early late PaleoceneELPE58.903.483.07−0.420.0390.110.015
Paleocene-Eocene Thermal MaximumPETM55.501.90−0.80−2.700.0830.410.121
Eocene Thermal Maximum 2ETM253.701.400.27−1.120.0450.280.045
Eocene Hyperthermal H2H253.601.400.80−0.600.0330.190.023
Eocene Hyperthermal I2I253.201.560.95−0.610.0400.160.023
Eocene Hyperthermal I1I153.101.560.84−0.720.0400.190.028
Eocene Thermal Maximum 3ETM352.500.20−0.60−0.800.0370.240.032
Eocene-Oligocene boundaryOi133.501.601.00−0.600.4300.030.047
Miocene Climatic Optimum 1MCO116.901.941.44−0.500.0280.180.018
Miocene Climatic Optimum 2MCO216.401.801.04−0.760.0220.350.028
Miocene Climatic Optimum 3MCO316.002.331.67−0.660.0320.210.024
Miocene Climatic Optimum 4MCO415.602.171.57−0.600.0290.210.022
Last Glacial Maximum–to–HoloceneLGMH0.020.110.450.340.018−0.20−0.013