Table 2 Omnibus F tests in linear mixed models for training effects on self-reported and HPA axis stress responses.

Removing the covariates from a respective model did not change the pattern of significance.

STAICortisol
Fixed effects
F (df)PF (df)P
Intercept (peak)
  Intercept13180.99 (473)≤0.0011450.30 (303)≤0.001
  Group8.43 (477)≤0.0015.26 (304)≤0.001
  Baseline113.00 (476)≤0.00115.74 (304)≤0.001
  Sex/hormones2.76 (283)0.0989.79 (300)≤0.001
  Age0.72 (283)>0.3000.85 (300)>0.300
  Time of day11.37 (300)≤0.001
Recovery slope
  Intercept770.32 (480)≤0.001653.77 (307)≤0.001
  Group8.68 (480)≤0.0012.10 (307)0.080
  Baseline2.51 (480)>0.1005.09 (308)0.025
Random effects
Estimate (SE)Estimate (SE)
Subject25.53 (2.66)0.40 (0.03)
Recovery slope0.005 (.003)≤0.001 (≤0.001)