Table 4 Between-group contrasts and effect sizes for training effects in self-reported and HPA axis stress reactivity.

Between-group Cohen’s d effect sizes were calculated using t values and degrees of freedom. Aff, Affect; NT, no training; Per, Perspective; Prs, Presence.

STAI
NTPrsAffPrs/AffPrs/Per
t (df)dtdtdtdtd
NT−2.92** (477)0.27−4.12*** (478)0.38−4.42*** (476)0.41−3.65*** (476)0.33
Prs2.92** (477)0.27−0.97 (477)0.09−1.24 (476)0.11−0.54 (476)0.05
Aff4.12*** (478)0.380.97 (477)0.09−0.28 (477)0.030.44 (477)0.04
Prs/Aff4.42*** (476)0.411.24 (476)0.110.28 (477)0.030.72 (476)0.07
Prs/Per3.65*** (476)0.330.54 (476)0.05−0.44 (477)0.04−0.72 (476)0.07
Cortisol
NTPrsAffPrs/AffPrs/Per
t (df)dtdtdtdtd
NT0.63 (304)0.07−2.06* (304)0.24−2.99** (304)0.34−3.22*** (304)0.37
Prs−0.63 (304)0.08−2.21* (304)0.25−2.97** (304)0.34−3.17** (304)0.36
Aff2.06* (304)0.242.21* (304)0.25−0.79 (304)0.09−0.96 (304)0.11
Prs/Aff2.99** (304)0.342.97** (304)0.340.79 (304)0.09−0.17 (304)0.02
Prs/Per3.22*** (304)0.373.17** (304)0.360.69 (304)0.110.17 (304)0.02

*P ≤ 0.05.

**P ≤ 0.01.

***P ≤ 0.001.