Table 1 Variables in the model and their interpretations in social and neural systems.
VariableModel definitionSocial interpretationNeural interpretation
aiValue of component iFighting ability of individual iHow much the part of the visual stimulus
to which population i responds is present
in the input.
bChange due to new evidence
cStrength of inputDegree of asymmetry between opponentsCoherence of moving dots
lLeak rate
rRate at which evidence appearsRate at which fights occurRate at which dots appear
T1 and T2Decision thresholds
w1Error rate weightCost to both individuals when the stronger
individual incorrectly signals, for example,
because the relationship is less stable
Cost of making incorrect decision,
imposed by experimenter
w2Decision time weightCost of prolonged fighting, for example,
injury and opportunity cost of time
Penalty for taking a long time
w3Decision preference weight,
captures strength of conflict
Cost of emitting a signal and agreeing to be
subordinate, for example, because of limited
access to resources
X1 and X2Decision variablesEvidence accumulated about relative dominanceFiring rates of neural populations