Table 2 Shape changes by cranial region in each of the ecological gradients significantly associated with cranial shape covariation.

Category abbreviations as in Table 1.

RostrumPostorbital constrictionCranial vaultOccipital regionZygomatic arches
G1. Small to largeDeeperExpandedNarrowerExpandedNo change
FE1. Broad to narrowShorterExpandedWiderNo changeWider
LH2. Early to lateDeeperNarrowerWiderExpandedNo change
EV1. Low to highLongerNarrowerNarrowerExpandedNarrower
FE2. Consensus (herbivory)ShorterNarrowerTallerRetractedWider
FE2. Consensus (omnivory)Longer + deeperNarrowerWiderExpandedNarrower
FE2. Consensus (carnivory)ShorterExpandedNarrowerNo ChangeWider