Table 1 The economics of fishing in the high seas.

Catch (in thousand metric tons), revenue, costs, subsidies, and profits without subsidies (π) and with subsidies (π*) for each country. All monetary values reported in million US dollars. These 14 countries accounted for 90% of the high-seas catch.

CatchRevenueCostsπSubsidiesπ*
Lower boundUpper boundLower boundUpper boundLower boundUpper bound
Global4391765662288020−3641428418538215613
China1523162415632041−418604181479
Taiwan54598310481220−237−652446179
South Korea403807553605202254409612664
Spain248637434492145203603749807
Japan21381663963917717784110181018
Ecuador194271951868517622107198
Indonesia192384178260123206102226308
Russia188195153309−1144212−10254
Mexico107252811846817032100202
United States93377100162216278256471533
Norway8610777881930143343
France582357886148157195344352
Seychelles55502650−12410933
Panama5510432663872256398