Table 1 Archeological context, karyotype sex estimates, haplotypes, contamination estimates, and isotopic data from Niederstotzingen.

Strontium values that indicate provenance outside of the region. Full list of mtDNA and NRY haplotypes is given in tables S8 and S9. Complete summary of contamination estimates for mitochondrial and X chromosome on 1240K capture and SE is given in tables S6 and S7. Genetic sex estimates are based on shotgun and 1240K capture. Individuals highlighted in red and green are from two multiple burials, graves 3 and 12 (Fig. 1).

IndividualArcheological
context
Age at
death
estimate
(years)
Genetic sexMtDNA/NRY haplotypeMedian mtDNA/X
(SE) contamination
Strontium 87Sr/86Sr
140–50MaleK1a/R1b1a2a1a1c2b2b1a10.03/0.002 (0.003)0.7089
29–11Male? *K1a1b2a1a/-0.15/—0.7093
3aByzantine20–30MaleK1a/R1b1a2a1a1c2b2b1a10.02/0.0145 (0.007)0.709
3b50–60MaleI5a1b/G2a2b10.03/0.0009 (0.0024)0.7104
3c20–30MaleT2/R1b1a20.03/0.0404 (0.0203)0.7089
42MaleX2b4/-0.03/—0.7094
50.5–2Male?*K1a1b2a1a/-0.04/—0.7096
6Lombardian14–17MaleH65a/R1b1a2a1a1c2b2b0.02/−0.0007 (0.00117)0.7093
9Franconian40–50MaleX2b4/R1b1a2a1a1c2b2b1a10.04/−0.0047 (0.00466)0.7089
1020–25Male*H1b/R10.06/—0.7105
12a25–35Male*H10e1/R1b10.09/—0.7087
12bByzantine30–40MaleX2b4/R1b1a2a1a1c2b2b1a10.03/0.0128 (0.0136)0.709
12c20–30MaleU5a1a1/R1b1a2a1a1c2b2b1a10.03/0.0010 (0.0078)0.7093

*Statistically insignificant sex estimate but consistent with maleness (table S10 and fig. S4).

†After PMD filtering, individuals 2 and 5 had insufficient reads for accurate sex estimation (table S13).