Table 2 Direct, instantaneous, unadjusted annual mean global shortwave methane radiative forcing at the tropopause under all-sky and clear-sky conditions using atmospheric state information from the CSIRO Mk3-6-0 (56) and INMCM4 (55) ESMs averaged over 2006 to 2010 CE (see Materials and Methods).

Uncertainties denote the interannual variability in these forcings.

ConditionModelAnnual mean forcing (W/m2)
All-skyCSIRO Mk3-6-00.025 ± (1 × 10−4)
INMCM40.026 ± (4 × 10−4)
Clear-skyCSIRO Mk3-6-00.011 ± (3 × 10−5)
INMCM40.008 ± (2 × 10−4)