Research ArticleENERGY RESOURCES

Three-dimensional graphene/Pt nanoparticle composites as freestanding anode for enhancing performance of microbial fuel cells

See allHide authors and affiliations

Science Advances  13 Nov 2015:
Vol. 1, no. 10, e1500372
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1500372
  • Fig. 1 The physical characterization of GA/Pt.

    (A) Digital photos of GA/Pt. (B and C) SEM and magnified SEM images of GA/Pt. (D and E) TEM and high-resolution TEM images of GA/Pt. (E) Inset: size distribution of Pt. (F) Energy-dispersive x-ray spectrum of GA/Pt, and the inset summarizes the content of C, O, and Pt elements. a.u., arbitrary units.

  • Fig. 2 Conductivity measurement of GA/Pt.

    (A) Nyquist plots of GA, GA/Pt, and carbon cloth. The ac impedance spectra are fitted with an equivalent circuit (inset), where Rs is the ohmic resistance of the electrolyte. Cd reflects the interfacial capacitance. Rct and RW are the charge transfer resistance of the anode material and the Warburg impedance of ion diffusion in the electrode, respectively. (B) Amplified Nyquist plots of the three samples. Compared with the GA and carbon cloth, Nyquist plot analysis indicates that the GA/Pt anode with small charge transfer resistance and good ion diffusion coefficient would be an ideal anode material for high-performance MFCs.

  • Fig. 3 The bacteria loading capacity and biocompatibility of GA/Pt.

    (A) SEM image of the surface of GA/Pt incubation with S. oneidensis MR-1 (inset: magnified SEM image). (B) SEM image of the cross section of GA/Pt incubation with S. oneidensis MR-1 (inset: magnified SEM image), revealing that the open macroporous structure of GA/Pt has high bacteria loading capacity. (C) SEM image of carbon cloth anode incubation with S. oneidensis MR-1 (inset: magnified SEM image). By comparing with the traditional carbon cloth under the same culture conditions, the advantage of GA/Pt for bacteria loading capacity is very obvious. (D) Confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) image of bacteria on GA/Pt after 3 days of colonization. The biocompatibility of GA/Pt composites is confirmed with the stained assay with calcein AM and propidium iodide (PI) to distinguish the live (green) and dead (red), respectively. CLSM image shows that bacteria can live very well on the GA/Pt.

  • Fig. 4 The stability and repeatability of MFC constructed with GA/Pt.

    (A) Voltage generation of MFC across a 1-kilohm external resistor, and an operating voltage higher than 0.3 V indicates successful startup. (B) Repeatable power generation cycles with a 1-kilohm loading. Red and pink arrows point to sodium lactate feeding and refresh. (C) SEM image of bacteria on GA/Pt anode after 25 days of operation. The bacteria cells firmly adhere to the macroporous architecture of the GA/Pt and form a thick biofilm after 25 days of operation. (D) CLSM image of bacteria on GA/Pt anode after 25 days of colonization. After 25 days of operation, almost all of the bacteria are live (green) and few are dead because of the normal apoptotic cells.

  • Fig. 5 The single-cell performance testing of MFCs and its application.

    (A) MFC single-cell performance constructed with different electrode materials working at room temperature. The current density (A/m2) was obtained by using the measured current (three times) and the electrode area. (B) Digital photo of MFCs to drive a timer. The two single biofuel cells have been assembled in series and successfully run a timer, strongly exemplifying that the GA/Pt anode enables the superior performance and the actual application potential.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/1/10/e1500372/DC1

    Fig. S1. Raman spectra of GO and GA.

    Fig. S2. SEM images of GA/Pt incubated with S. oneidensis MR-1.

    Fig. S3. SEM images of bacteria on GA with different magnifications.

    Fig. S4. Long stability power generation profile of MFC by adding 18, 36, or 180 mM sodium lactate in fed-batch mode.

    Fig. S5. Power generation profiles of MFCs constructed with carbon cloth (dark), GA (green), and GA/Pt anodes (red).

    Fig. S6. Illustration of possible mechanism involving GA/Pt anode for enhancing the MFC performance.

    Fig. S7. MFC single-cell performance fed with primary effluent.

    Table S1. Summary of the performance of the previously reported MFCs inoculated with S. oneidensis MR-1.

    Movie S1. The real application of the MFCs for running a timer.

    References (7181)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Fig. S1. Raman spectra of GO and GA.
    • Fig. S2. SEM images of GA/Pt incubated with S. oneidensis MR-1.
    • Fig. S3. SEM images of bacteria on GA with different magnifications.
    • Fig. S4. Long stability power generation profile of MFC by adding 18, 36, or 180 mM sodium lactate in fed-batch mode.
    • Fig. S5. Power generation profiles of MFCs constructed with carbon cloth (dark), GA (green), and GA/Pt anodes (red).
    • Fig. S6. Illustration of possible mechanism involving GA/Pt anode for enhancing the MFC performance.
    • Fig. S7. MFC single-cell performance fed with primary effluent.
    • Table S1. Summary of the performance of the previously reported MFCs inoculated with S. oneidensis MR-1.
    • References (71–81)

    Download PDF

    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • Movie S1 (.avi format). The real application of the MFCs for running a timer.

    Files in this Data Supplement:

Stay Connected to Science Advances

Navigate This Article