Research ArticleECOLOGY

Estimating the global conservation status of more than 15,000 Amazonian tree species

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Science Advances  20 Nov 2015:
Vol. 1, no. 10, e1500936
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1500936

Article Information

vol. 1 no. 10

Online ISSN: 
History: 
  • Received for publication July 15, 2015
  • Accepted for publication October 7, 2015
  • .

Author Information

  1. Hans ter Steege1,2,*,
  2. Nigel C. A. Pitman3,4,
  3. Timothy J. Killeen5,
  4. William F. Laurance6,
  5. Carlos A. Peres7,
  6. Juan Ernesto Guevara8,9,
  7. Rafael P. Salomão10,
  8. Carolina V. Castilho11,
  9. Iêda Leão Amaral12,
  10. Francisca Dionízia de Almeida Matos12,
  11. Luiz de Souza Coelho12,
  12. William E. Magnusson13,
  13. Oliver L. Phillips14,
  14. Diogenes de Andrade Lima Filho12,
  15. Marcelo de Jesus Veiga Carim15,
  16. Mariana Victória Irume12,
  17. Maria Pires Martins12,
  18. Jean-François Molino16,
  19. Daniel Sabatier16,
  20. Florian Wittmann17,
  21. Dairon Cárdenas López18,
  22. José Renan da Silva Guimarães15,
  23. Abel Monteagudo Mendoza19,
  24. Percy Núñez Vargas20,
  25. Angelo Gilberto Manzatto21,
  26. Neidiane Farias Costa Reis22,
  27. John Terborgh4,
  28. Katia Regina Casula22,
  29. Juan Carlos Montero12,23,
  30. Ted R. Feldpausch14,24,
  31. Euridice N. Honorio Coronado14,25,
  32. Alvaro Javier Duque Montoya26,
  33. Charles Eugene Zartman12,
  34. Bonifacio Mostacedo27,
  35. Rodolfo Vasquez19,
  36. Rafael L. Assis28,
  37. Marcelo Brilhante Medeiros29,
  38. Marcelo Fragomeni Simon29,
  39. Ana Andrade30,
  40. José Luís Camargo30,
  41. Susan G. W. Laurance6,
  42. Henrique Eduardo Mendonça Nascimento12,
  43. Beatriz S. Marimon31,
  44. Ben-Hur Marimon Jr.31,
  45. Flávia Costa13,
  46. Natalia Targhetta28,
  47. Ima Célia Guimarães Vieira10,
  48. Roel Brienen14,
  49. Hernán Castellanos32,
  50. Joost F. Duivenvoorden33,
  51. Hugo F. Mogollón34,
  52. Maria Teresa Fernandez Piedade28,
  53. Gerardo A. Aymard C.35,
  54. James A. Comiskey36,
  55. Gabriel Damasco8,
  56. Nállarett Dávila37,
  57. Roosevelt García-Villacorta38,39,
  58. Pablo Roberto Stevenson Diaz40,
  59. Alberto Vincentini13,
  60. Thaise Emilio13,41,
  61. Carolina Levis13,42,
  62. Juliana Schietti13,
  63. Priscila Souza13,
  64. Alfonso Alonso43,
  65. Francisco Dallmeier43,
  66. Leandro Valle Ferreira10,
  67. David Neill44,
  68. Alejandro Araujo-Murakami45,
  69. Luzmila Arroyo45,
  70. Fernanda Antunes Carvalho13,
  71. Fernanda Coelho Souza13,
  72. Dário Dantas do Amaral10,
  73. Rogerio Gribel46,
  74. Bruno Garcia Luize47,
  75. Marcelo Petrati Pansonato13,
  76. Eduardo Venticinque48,
  77. Paul Fine8,
  78. Marisol Toledo23,
  79. Chris Baraloto49,50,
  80. Carlos Cerón51,
  81. Julien Engel52,
  82. Terry W. Henkel53,
  83. Eliana M. Jimenez54,
  84. Paul Maas55,
  85. Maria Cristina Peñuela Mora56,
  86. Pascal Petronelli49,
  87. Juan David Cardenas Revilla12,
  88. Marcos Silveira57,
  89. Juliana Stropp58,59,
  90. Raquel Thomas-Caesar60,
  91. Tim R. Baker14,
  92. Doug Daly61,
  93. Marcos Ríos Paredes62,
  94. Naara Ferreira da Silva28,
  95. Alfredo Fuentes63,
  96. Peter Møller Jørgensen64,
  97. Jochen Schöngart17,
  98. Miles R. Silman65,
  99. Nicolás Castaño Arboleda18,
  100. Bruno Barçante Ladvocat Cintra28,
  101. Fernando Cornejo Valverde66,
  102. Anthony Di Fiore67,
  103. Juan Fernando Phillips68,
  104. Tinde R. van Andel1,
  105. Patricio von Hildebrand69,
  106. Edelcilio Marques Barbosa12,
  107. Luiz Carlos de Matos Bonates12,
  108. Deborah de Castro28,
  109. Emanuelle de Sousa Farias70,
  110. Therany Gonzales71,
  111. Jean-Louis Guillaumet72,
  112. Bruce Hoffman73,
  113. Yadvinder Malhi74,
  114. Ires Paula de Andrade Miranda12,
  115. Adriana Prieto75,
  116. Agustín Rudas75,
  117. Ademir R. Ruschell76,
  118. Natalino Silva77,
  119. César I. A. Vela78,
  120. Vincent A. Vos79,80,
  121. Eglée L. Zent81,
  122. Stanford Zent81,
  123. Angela Cano40,
  124. Marcelo Trindade Nascimento82,
  125. Alexandre A. Oliveira83,
  126. Hirma Ramirez-Angulo84,
  127. José Ferreira Ramos12,
  128. Rodrigo Sierra85,
  129. Milton Tirado85,
  130. Maria Natalia Umaña Medina86,
  131. Geertje van der Heijden87,
  132. Emilio Vilanova Torre84,
  133. Corine Vriesendorp3,
  134. Ophelia Wang88,
  135. Kenneth R. Young89,
  136. Claudia Baider83,90,
  137. Henrik Balslev91,
  138. Natalia de Castro28,
  139. William Farfan-Rios65,
  140. Cid Ferreira12,
  141. Casimiro Mendoza92,93,
  142. Italo Mesones8,
  143. Armando Torres-Lezama84,
  144. Ligia Estela Urrego Giraldo26,
  145. Daniel Villarroel45,
  146. Roderick Zagt94,
  147. Miguel N. Alexiades95,
  148. Karina Garcia-Cabrera65,
  149. Lionel Hernandez96,
  150. Isau Huamantupa-Chuquimaco20,
  151. William Milliken97,
  152. Walter Palacios Cuenca98,
  153. Susamar Pansini99,
  154. Daniela Pauletto100,
  155. Freddy Ramirez Arevalo101,
  156. Adeilza Felipe Sampaio99,
  157. Elvis H. Valderrama Sandoval101,102 and
  158. Luis Valenzuela Gamarra19
  1. 1Biodiversity Dynamics, Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Darwin building, Darwinweg 4, Leiden 2300 AA, The Netherlands.
  2. 2Ecology and Biodiversity Group, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, Utrecht, Netherlands.
  3. 3Science and Education, The Field Museum, 1400 S. Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605–2496, USA.
  4. 4Center for Tropical Conservation, Duke University, Nicholas School of the Environment, Durham, NC 27708, USA.
  5. 5Agteca-Amazonica, Santa Cruz, Bolivia.
  6. 6Centre for Tropical Environmental and Sustainability Science, College of Marine and Environmental Sciences, James Cook University, Cairns, Queensland 4870, Australia.
  7. 7School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK.
  8. 8Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720–3140, USA.
  9. 9Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales, Av. Río Coca E6-115 e Isla Floreana, Quito, Ecuador.
  10. 10Coordenação de Botânica, Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Av. Magalhaes Barata 376, C.P. 399, Belém, PA 66040–170, Brazil.
  11. 11EMBRAPA – Centro de Pesquisa Agroflorestal de Roraima, BR 174, km 8 – Distrito Industrial, Boa Vista, RR 69301–970, Brazil.
  12. 12Coordenação de Biodiversidade, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia - INPA, Av. André Araújo, 2936, Petrópolis, Manaus, AM 69060–001, Brazil.
  13. 13Coordenação de Pesquisas em Ecologia, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia - INPA, Av. André Araújo, 2936, Petrópolis, Manaus, AM 69060–001, Brazil.
  14. 14School of Geography, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK.
  15. 15Instituto de Pesquisas Científicas e Tecnológicas do Amapá - IEPA, Av. Feliciano Coelho, 1509. Trem, Macapá, Amapá 68901–025, Brazil.
  16. 16UMR AMAP, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), TA 40/PS2, Boulevard de la Lironde, Montpellier Cedex 5 34398, France.
  17. 17Biogeochemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Hahn-Meitner Weg 1, Mainz 55128, Germany.
  18. 18Herbario Amazónico Colombiano, Instituto SINCHI, Calle 20 No 5, Bogotá, DF 44, Colombia.
  19. 19Jardín Botánico de Missouri, Oxapampa, Pasco, Peru.
  20. 20Herbario Vargas, Universidad Nacional de San Antonio Abad del Cusco, Avenida de la Cultura, Nro 733, Cusco, Cuzco, Peru.
  21. 21Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal de Rondônia, Rodovia BR 364 s/n Km 9,5 - Sentido Acre, Unir, Porto Velho, Rondônia 76.824-027, Brazil.
  22. 22Programa de Pós-Graduação em Desenvolvimento Regional e Meio Ambiente PGDRA, Universidade Federal de Rondônia, Rodovia BR 364 s/n Km 9,5 - Sentido Acre, Unir, Porto Velho, Rondônia 76.824-028, Brazil.
  23. 23Instituto Boliviano de Investigacion Forestal, Universidad Autónoma Gabriel René Moreno, Km 9 Carretera al Norte, El Vallecito, FCA-UAGRM, Santa Cruz, Bolivia.
  24. 24College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4RJ, UK.
  25. 25Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonía Peruana, Av. José A. Quiñones km. 2.5, Iquitos, Loreto, Peru.
  26. 26Departamento de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Calle 64 x Cra 65, Medellín, Antioquia 1027, Colombia.
  27. 27Facultad de Ciencias Agrícolas, Universidad Autónoma Gabriel René Moreno, Santa Cruz, Bolivia.
  28. 28Coordenação de Dinâmica Ambiental, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia - INPA, Av. André Araújo, 2936, Petrópolis, Manaus, AM 69060–001, Brazil.
  29. 29Prédio da Botânica e Ecologia, Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia, Parque Estaccao Biologica, Av. W5 Norte, Brasilia, DF 70770–917, Brazil.
  30. 30Projeto Dinâmica Biológica de Fragmentos Florestais, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia - INPA, Av. André Araújo, 2936, Petrópolis, Manaus, AM 69060–001, Brazil.
  31. 31Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade do Estado de Mato Grosso, Nova Xavantina, MT, Brazil.
  32. 32Universidad Nacional Experimental de Guayana, Calle Chile, urbaniz Chilemex, Puerto Ordaz, Bolivar, Venezuela.
  33. 33Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Sciencepark 904, Amsterdam, Noord Holland 1098 XH, The Netherlands.
  34. 34Endangered Species Coalition, 8530 Geren Rd., Silver Spring, MD 20901, USA.
  35. 35Programa de Ciencias del Agro y el Mar, Herbario Universitario (PORT), UNELLEZ-Guanare, Guanare, Portuguesa 3350, Venezuela.
  36. 36Inventory and Monitoring Program, National Park Service, 120 Chatham Lane, Fredericksburg, VA 22405, USA.
  37. 37Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Caixa Postal 6109, Campinas, SP 13.083-970, Brazil.
  38. 38Institute of Molecular Plant Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Rd, Edinburgh EH3 5LR, UK.
  39. 39Royal Botanic Garden of Edinburgh, 20a Inverleith Row, Edinburgh EH3 5LR, UK.
  40. 40Laboratorio de Ecología de Bosques Tropicales y Primatología, Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, DF, Colombia.
  41. 41Comparative Plant and Fungal Biology, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, UK.
  42. 42Forest Ecology and Forest Management Group, University of Wageningen, Lumen, building no.100, Droevendaalsesteeg 3, Wageningen 6708 PB, Netherlands.
  43. 43Center for Conservation Education and Sustainability, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, National Zoological Park, MRC 0705, Washington, DC 20013–7012, USA.
  44. 44Ecosistemas, Biodiversidad y Conservación de Especies, Universidad Estatal Amazónica, Km. 2 1/2 vía a Tena (Paso Lateral), Puyo, Pastaza, Ecuador.
  45. 45Museo de Historia Natural Noel Kempff Mercado, Universidad Autónoma Gabriel Rene Moreno, Avenida Irala 565 Casilla Post al 2489, Santa Cruz, Bolivia.
  46. 46Diretoria de Pesquisas Científicas, Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
  47. 47Coordenação de Tecnologia e Inovação, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia - INPA, Av. André Araújo, 2936, Petrópolis, Manaus, AM 69060–001, Brazil.
  48. 48Centro de Biociências, Departamento de Ecologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte - UFRN, Campus Universitário - Lagoa Nova, Natal, RN 59072–970, Brazil.
  49. 49UMR Ecologie des Forêts de Guyane, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Campus agronomique, Kourou Cedex 97379, French Guiana.
  50. 50International Center for Tropical Botany (ICTB), Florida International University, 11200 SW 8th Street, OE 167, Miami, FL 33199, USA.
  51. 51Escuela de Biología Herbario Alfredo Paredes, Universidad Central, Ap. Postal 17.01.2177, Quito, Pichincha, Ecuador.
  52. 52UMR Ecologie des Forêts de Guyane, CNRS, Kourou Cedex, French Guiana.
  53. 53Department of Biological Sciences, Humboldt State University, 1 Harpst Street, Arcata, CA 95521, USA.
  54. 54Grupo de Ecología de Ecosistemas Terrestres Tropicales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Amazonía, Leticia, Amazonas, Colombia.
  55. 55Taxonomy and Systematics, Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Darwin building, Darwinweg 4, Leiden 2300 AA, The Netherlands.
  56. 56Universidad Regional Amazónica IKIAM, Km 7 via Muyuna, Tena, Napo, Ecuador.
  57. 57Museu Universitário, Universidade Federal do Acre, Rio Branco, AC 69915–559, Brazil.
  58. 58Land Resource and Management Unit, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, TP 440, Ispra, VA I-21027, Italy.
  59. 59Institute of Biological and Health Sciences, Federal University of Alagoas, Av. Lourival Melo Mota, s/n, Tabuleiro do Martins, Maceio, AL 57072–970, Brazil.
  60. 60Iwokrama International Programme for Rainforest Conservation, Georgetown, Guyana.
  61. 61New York Botanical Garden, 2900 Southern Blvd, Bronx, New York, NY 10458–5126, USA.
  62. 62Servicios de Biodiversidad EIRL, Iquitos, Loreto, Peru.
  63. 63Herbario Nacional de Bolivia, Universitario UMSA, Casilla 10077 Correo Central, La Paz, Bolivia.
  64. 64Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166–0299, USA.
  65. 65Biology Department and Center for Energy, Environment and Sustainability, Wake Forest University, 1834 Wake Forest Rd, Winston Salem, NC 27106, USA.
  66. 66Andes to Amazon Biodiversity Program, Madre de Dios, Madre de Dios, Peru.
  67. 67Department of Anthropology, University of Texas at Austin, SAC 5.150, 2201 Speedway Stop C3200, Austin, TX 78712, USA.
  68. 68Fundación Puerto Rastrojo, Cra 10 No. 24–76 Oficina 1201, Bogotá, DF, Colombia.
  69. 69Fundación Estación de Biología, Cra 10 No. 24–76 Oficina 1201, Bogotá, DF, Colombia.
  70. 70Laboratório de Ecologia de Doenças Transmissíveis da Amazônia (EDTA), Instituto Leônidas e Maria Deane, Fiocruz, Rua Terezina, 476, Adrianópolis, Manaus, AM 69057–070, Brazil.
  71. 71ACEER Foundation, Jirón Cusco N° 370, Puerto Maldonado, Madre de Dios, Peru.
  72. 72Departement EV, Muséum national d’histoire naturelle de Paris, 16 rue Buffon, Paris 75005, France.
  73. 73Amazon Conservation Team, Doekhieweg Oost #24, Paramaribo, Suriname.
  74. 74Environmental Change Institute, Oxford University Centre for the Environment, Dyson Perrins Building, South Parks Road, Oxford, England OX1 3QY, UK.
  75. 75Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, UNAL, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Apartado 7945, Bogotá, DF, Colombia.
  76. 76Embrapa Amazonia Oriental, Trav. Dr. Enéas Pinheiro s/no, Belém, PA, Brazil.
  77. 77Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia, Belém, PA, Brazil.
  78. 78Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Medio Ambiente, Universidad Nacional de San Antonio Abad del Cusco, San Martín 451, Puerto Maldonado, Madre de Dios, Peru.
  79. 79Universidad Autónoma del Beni, Riberalta, Beni, Bolivia.
  80. 80Regional Norte Amazónico, Centro de Investigación y Promoción del Campesinado, Riberalta, Beni, Bolivia.
  81. 81Laboratory of Human Ecology, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas - IVIC, Ado 20632, Caracas 1020A, Venezuela.
  82. 82Laboratório de Ciências Ambientais, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Av. Alberto Lamego 2000, Campos dos Goyatacazes, RJ 28013–620, Brazil.
  83. 83Instituto de Biociências - Dept. Ecologia, Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP, Rua do Matão, Trav. 14, no. 321, Cidade Universitária, São Paulo, SP 05508–090, Brazil.
  84. 84Instituto de Investigaciones para el Desarrollo Forestal (INDEFOR), Universidad de los Andes, Conjunto Forestal, C.P. 5101, Mérida, Mérida, Venezuela.
  85. 85GeoIS, El Día 369 y El Telégrafo, 3° Piso, Quito, Pichincha, Ecuador.
  86. 86Department of Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.
  87. 87Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53202, USA.
  88. 88Environmental Science and Policy, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, USA.
  89. 89Geography and the Environment, University of Texas at Austin, 305 E. 23rd Street, CLA building, Austin, TX 78712, USA.
  90. 90Agricultural Services, Ministry of Agro-Industry and Food Security, The Mauritius Herbarium, Reduit, Mauritius.
  91. 91Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Building 1540 Ny Munkegade, Aarhus C, Aarhus DK-8000, Denmark.
  92. 92FOMABO, Manejo Forestal en las Tierras Tropicales de Bolivia, Sacta, Cochabamba, Bolivia.
  93. 93Escuela de Ciencias Forestales (ESFOR), Universidad Mayor de San Simon (UMSS), Sacta, Cochabamba, Bolivia.
  94. 94Tropenbos International, Lawickse Allee 11 PO Box 232, Wageningen 6700 AE, The Netherlands.
  95. 95School of Anthropology and Conservation, University of Kent, Marlowe Building, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NR, UK.
  96. 96Centro de Investigaciones Ecológicas de Guayana, Universidad Nacional Experimental de Guayana, Calle Chile urbaniz Chilemex, Puerto Ordaz, Bolivar, Venezuela.
  97. 97Comparative Plant and Fungal Biology, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AE, UK.
  98. 98Herbario Nacional del Ecuador, Universidad Técnica del Norte, Quito, Pichincha, Ecuador.
  99. 99Programa de Pós-Graduação em Desenvolvimento Regional e Meio Ambiente PGDRA, Universidade Federal de Rondônia, Rodovia BR 364 s/n Km 9,5 - Sentido Acre, Unir, Porto Velho, Rondônia 76.824-029, Brazil.
  100. 100Instituto de Biodiversidade e Floresta, Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará, Rua Vera Paz, Campus Tapajós, Santarém, PA 68015–110, Brazil.
  101. 101Facultad de Biologia, Universidad Nacional de la Amazonia Peruana, Pevas 5ta cdra, Iquitos, Peru.
  102. 102Department of Biology, University of Missouri, St. Louis, MO 63121, USA.
  1. *Corresponding author. E-mail: hans.tersteege{at}naturalis.nl

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