Research ArticleCLIMATOLOGY

Glacier maxima in Baffin Bay during the Medieval Warm Period coeval with Norse settlement

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Science Advances  04 Dec 2015:
Vol. 1, no. 11, e1500806
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1500806
  • Fig. 1 Baffin Island and the North Atlantic region.

    (A) Study region in Baffin Island. (B) North Atlantic region with annual temperature correlation to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) based on the European Reanalysis Interim data set, 1979–2013 (principal component–based; image obtained using U. Maine Climate Reanalyzer, www.cci-reanalyzer.org). Shown are the locations of the Naqsaq valley and Nuussuaq Peninsula study areas, alkenone-based sea surface temperature (SST) records from MD99-2275 and AI07-2G (35), proglacial lake sediment record from Hvítárvatn, and the location of the Gorner and Aletsch glaciers. Locations of Norse settlements (red dots): Eastern Settlement (ES), Western Settlement (WS), L’Anse aux Meadows (LM), and Tanfield valley (TV), a possible Norse site (12, 13). BB, Baffin Bay; LS, Labrador Sea.

  • Fig. 2 Naqsaq valley 10Be ages.

    Moraine ages are consistent with their stratigraphic order. Base image is a 1961 CE aerial photograph.

  • Fig. 3 Climate records across the North Atlantic region.

    (A) Summed probability of radiocarbon ages from Baffin Island marking the last period of plant growth and the onset of regional snowline lowering (5). (B) Summed probability of 10Be ages from each moraine in the Naqsaq valley with the mean age and SD (fig. S2). Also shown are the dated moraines in Ayr Lake (AYR) and the proximal moraine in Uigordleq Lake valley (UIGP). (C) Summed probability of radiocarbon ages from the Cumberland Peninsula on southern Baffin Island (64). (D) Summit Greenland δ15N-δ40Ar gas-derived temperatures (37). (E) Alkenone-based lake temperatures in western Greenland (38). (F) Alkenone-based SSTs of the Labrador Current (35). (G) Reconstructed NAO index (6). (H) Alkenone-based SSTs off northern Iceland (35). (I) Varve thickness record from proglacial lake Hvítárvatn, Iceland (40). Increasing varve thickness represents increasing glacier size. (J) Glacier extent in the Swiss Alps (19).

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/1/11/e1500806/DC1

    Fig. S1. Uigordleq Lake valley moraine complex and 10Be ages.

    Fig. S2. Normal kernel density estimates of 10Be ages grouped by moraine from Baffin Island.

    Fig. S3. Comparison of moraine ages between Naqsaq, Ayr, and Uigordleq Lake valley moraines.

    Fig. S4. Representative moraine boulders from Naqsaq valley.

    Fig. S5. Representative moraine boulders from Uigordleq Lake valley.

    Table S1. 10Be sample input information.

    Table S2. Process blank 10Be data.

    Table S3. 10Be ages using alternative scaling schemes.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Fig. S1. Uigordleq Lake valley moraine complex and 10Be ages.
    • Fig. S2. Normal kernel density estimates of 10Be ages grouped by moraine from Baffin Island.
    • Fig. S3. Comparison of moraine ages between Naqsaq, Ayr, and Uigordleq Lake valley moraines.
    • Fig. S4. Representative moraine boulders from Naqsaq valley.
    • Fig. S5. Representative moraine boulders from Uigordleq Lake valley.
    • Table S1. 10Be sample input information.
    • Table S2. Process blank 10Be data.
    • Table S3. 10Be ages using alternative scaling schemes.

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