ReviewBIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING

Nanodiamonds: The intersection of nanotechnology, drug development, and personalized medicine

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Science Advances  21 Aug 2015:
Vol. 1, no. 7, e1500439
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1500439

Figures

  • Fig. 1 Unique electrostatic properties of NDs.

    Analysis of the surface electrostatic potential of truncated octahedral NDs reveals that there is a strong relationship between the shape of the ND facet surfaces and electrostatic potential. (100) surfaces, as well as the (100)/(111) edges, exhibit strong positive potential, whereas graphitized (111) surfaces exhibit strong negative potentials. Reproduced from A. S. Barnard, M. Sternberg, Crystallinity and surface electrostatics of diamond nanocrystals. J. Mater. Chem. 17, 4811 (2007), with permission from The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Fig. 2 Imaging applications of FND fluorescent NDs.

    (A) C. elegans fed with dextran-coated fluorescent NDs. Reprinted (adapted) with permission from N. Mohan, C.-S. Chen, H.-H. Hsieh, Y.-C. Wu, H.-C. Chang, In vivo imaging and toxicity assessments of fluorescent nanodiamonds in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nano-Lett. 10, 3692 (2010/09/08, 2010). Copyright 2010 American Chemical Society. (B) Engraftment of fluorescent ND-labeled LSCs in a lung injury mouse model. Adapted with permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd.: T.-J. Wu et al., Tracking the engraftment and regenerative capabilities of transplanted LSCs using fluorescent NDs. Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 682 (09//print, 2013), copyright 2013.

  • Fig. 3 ND-anthracycline drug delivery in cancer.

    (A) EGFR-targeted delivery of ND-epirubicin (anti-EGFR-NDLP-Epi) against breast cancer cells demonstrated increased efficacy compared to untargeted ND-epirubicin (NDLP-Epi) and unmodified epirubicin (Epi) while retaining the increased safety that results from ND conjugation of epirubicin. Reprinted with permission from WILEY. (B) Treatment of hepatic tumor–bearing mice with ND-epirubicin (EPND) efficiently killed hepatic CSCs and prevented secondary tumor formation seen after treatment with unmodified epiruibicin (Epi). (C) A schematic model of ND-epirubicin complex formation and aggregation. Reprinted (adapted) with permission from X. Wang et al., Epirubicin-adsorbed nanodiamonds kill chemoresistant hepatic cancer stem cells. ACS Nano 8, 12151 (2014/12/23, 2014). Copyright 2014 American Chemical Society.

  • Fig. 4 PPM-DD–optimized ND-drug combinations.

    (A) A schematic model of the PPM experimental framework. Dox, doxorubicin; Bleo, bleomycin; Mtx, mitoxantrone; Pac, paclitaxel. (B) PPM-derived optimal ND-drug combinations (NDC) outperform a random sampling of NDCs in effective therapeutic windows of treatment of cancer cells compared to control cells. Reprinted (adapted) with permission from H. Wang et al., Mechanism-independent optimization of combinatorial nanodiamond and unmodified drug delivery using a phenotypically driven platform technology. ACS Nano (2015/02/17, 2015). Copyright 2014 American Chemical Society.

  • Fig. 5 PPM-DD–optimized drug combinations against hepatic cancers.

    (A) Hepatic cancer cells, such as Hep3B, exhibit enhanced uptake of glucose and glucose analogs (2-NBDG) compared to normal hepatocytes (THLE-2) and other hepatic cancer cells (Bel-7402). (B) Inhibition of hepatic cancer cell proliferation by PPM-DD–optimized two-drug (D1) and three-drug (D2) combinations were compared to PPM-DD–derived nonsignificant combinations (D3 and D4) in vitro. (C) Response surface plots of predicted outputs after ZM 449829 and HA-1004·2HCl reveal a synergistic relationship between the two drugs. Figures reprinted with permission from SAGE Publications.

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