Research ArticleNANOTECHNOLOGY

Dielectric capacitors with three-dimensional nanoscale interdigital electrodes for energy storage

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Science Advances  23 Oct 2015:
Vol. 1, no. 9, e1500605
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1500605
  • Fig. 1 Schematic depiction of the structure, fabrication process, and energy storage mechanism of the designed dielectric capacitor.

    (A) Dielectric capacitor with 3D interdigital electrode. (B) Breakdown structure of the dielectric capacitor. CVD, chemical vapor deposition. (C) Fabrication process of the uniquely structured AAO membrane. (D) Schematic depiction of the energy storage mechanism of a unit cell in the newly structured dielectric capacitor from side view (top) and top view (bottom).

  • Fig. 2 SEM characterizations of the uniquely structured nanoporous AAO membrane.

    (A) Side view of the as-prepared uniquely structured AAO membrane, where the interface between MA-AAO and HA-AAO is marked with a white arrow. (B) Bottom view of the uniquely structured AAO membrane after chemical etching. (C) Side view of the HA-AAO after chemical etching. The two sets of pores are indicated with white and black arrows, respectively. (D) Side view close to the barrier layer of the uniquely structured AAO membrane. The two sets of pores are marked with white and black arrows, respectively.

  • Fig. 3 SEM characterizations of the newly structured dielectric capacitor.

    (A) Side view of a broken piece of the dielectric capacitor. In the area marked with a dashed rectangle, a carbon nanosheet (marked with red arrows) is implanted in the small pores between the two neighboring cells where the two CNTs with large diameters (marked with white arrows) were deposited. (B) Bottom view of the capacitor. (C) Side view image close to the bottom of the newly structured dielectric capacitor. The CNTs with small diameters are marked with red arrows.

  • Fig. 4 Electrical measurements of dielectric capacitors.

    (A) Current-voltage curve. The current density is relative to the full area of the dielectric capacitor. The thickness of HA-AAO was about 6 μm, the diameter of collector electrode was about 350 μm, and the dielectric thickness was about 20 nm. (B to D) CVs (B), constant current (4 μA) charge-discharge curve (C), and impedance spectrum (D) of the dielectric capacitor. The impedance measurement was carried out at a dc bias of 0 V with a sinusoidal signal of 5 mV over a frequency range from 105 to 1 Hz.

  • Fig. 5 Ragone plot showing high energy and high power densities of the newly structured dielectric capacitor.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/1/9/e1500605/DC1

    Fig. S1. The equivalent nanocapacitor unit of the newly structured dielectric capacitor.

    Fig. S2. Two-dimensional electric field intensity distributions (indicated by the color bar) of the CNT arrays belong to two reverse electrodes of the newly structured electrostatic capacitor.

    Fig. S3. SEM characterizations of the uniquely structured nanoporous AAO membrane.

    Fig. S4. The dielectric capacitor to be measured, with the collection electrode diameters about 200 to 500 μm (left panel) and 3.5 mm (right panel).

    Fig. S5. Characterizations of the dielectric capacitor with the dielectric layer of about 10 nm.

    Fig. S6. The current-voltage curve of the newly structured dielectric capacitor (6-μm-thick HA-AAO) with the collector electrode diameter of about 3.5 mm.

    Table S1. Comparison of various MIM dielectric capacitors built with porous materials.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Fig. S1. The equivalent nanocapacitor unit of the newly structured dielectric capacitor.
    • Fig. S2. Two-dimensional electric field intensity distributions (indicated by the color bar) of the CNT arrays belong to two reverse electrodes of the newly structured electrostatic capacitor.
    • Fig. S3. SEM characterizations of the uniquely structured nanoporous AAO membrane.
    • Fig. S4. The dielectric capacitor to be measured, with the collection electrode diameters about 200 to 500 μm (left panel) and 3.5 mm (right panel).
    • Fig. S5. Characterizations of the dielectric capacitor with the dielectric layer of about 10 nm.
    • Fig. S6. The current-voltage curve of the newly structured dielectric capacitor (6- μm-thick HA-AAO) with the collector electrode diameter of about 3.5 mm.
    • Table S1. Comparison of various MIM dielectric capacitors built with porous materials.

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