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Carbyne with finite length: The one-dimensional sp carbon

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Science Advances  30 Oct 2015:
Vol. 1, no. 9, e1500857
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1500857
  • Fig. 1 Schematic illustration of the three kinds of hybridization of carbon.

    Diamond represents sp3 hybridization, and its derivatives are lonsdaleite and C8. The most familiar carbon material, graphite, shows sp2 hybridization, and its derivatives are fullerene, carbon nanotube, and graphene. Carbyne is the one-dimensional allotrope of carbon composed of sp-hybridized carbon atoms. However, definitive evidence for carbyne remains elusive. Therefore, the existence of carbyne derivatives remains unknown.

  • Fig. 2 Spectroscopic analysis of carbyne.

    (A) Raman spectrum. The peaks at 1050 and 2175 cm−1 belong to carbon-carbon single bonds and triple bonds, respectively. (B) FTIR spectrum. The signal at 2157 cm−1 is ascribed to the stretching vibration of carbon-carbon triple bonds.

  • Fig. 3 UV-Vis and fluorescence spectra of carbyne.

    (A) UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the sample obtained at 2.3 min through HPLC (CH3OH/H2O; 97:3, v/v) and the corresponding optical graph of a colorless transparent solution. (B) Fluorescence emission of carbyne. Three fluorescence peaks (at 410, 435, and 465 nm) remain the same as excitation wavelength varies. Inset: The purple-blue fluorescence graph excited with a 370-nm light. (C) The lifetime of the sample is measured to be 1.3 ns. Inset: No photobleaching was observed with a 450-W xenon lamp across 1.5 hours. (D) Schematic illustration of three kinds of fluorescence behavior derived from different lengths of carbyne chains. (E) Dependence of energy gaps (ΔE) on the number of carbon atoms in carbyne. It is clear that the gaps between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of carbyne monotonically decrease with increasing number of carbon atoms. For the 4- and 100-carbon carbynes, the HOMO-LUMO gap is 4.061 and 0.487 eV, respectively, implying the tuning of energy gaps (from broad to narrow) accompanying the increase in carbon atoms in carbyne. (F) For comparison, the relative energy in vertical coordinates represents the absolute value of relative binding energy. Negative binding energy corresponds to a stable configuration. The greater is the absolute value, the higher is the stability of carbyne chains. The relative absolute value of binding energy decreases with increasing number of carbon atoms in carbyne, but the decreasing speed gradually becomes slower and ultimately reaches a specific value. Dotted horizontal curve, trend reaching a specific value; circle, turning point in the curve.

  • Fig. 4 Morphology and structural characterization of carbyne crystals.

    (A) XRD pattern of the sample. The peaks are shaped and strong, showing the good crystallinity of carbyne. There is an obviously preferred orientation along the c axis. Inset: White carbyne powder coating on the glass substrate. Rectangular glass substrate with white crystal powder (left) compared with bare glass (right). (B) SEM image of carbyne crystals. They are in the shape of flakes stacked together. EDS showing that the sample contains C, O, and Au. O and Au originate from the surface adsorption of oxygen molecules and gold nanocrystals. (C) TEM image of carbyne crystals. Carbyne exhibits a rod shape (10 to 30 nm in width and 50 to >100 nm in length). The tiny spherical particles on the surface of nanorods are gold nanocrystals. (D to I) SAED patterns and HRTEM images are divided into three categories based on the direction of the incident electron beam ([1-20], [012], and [001], respectively). The former two are rectangular lattices, whereas the last one is a hexagonal lattice. Scale bars, 5 nm (E), 3 nm (G), and 3 nm (H). (J) EDS shows that the sample is almost completely composed of carbon and that the Cu signal originated from the Cu grid.

  • Fig. 5 Carbyne crystal structure.

    (A) The proposed hexagonal structure frame (a = 5.78 Å, b = 5.78 Å, c = 9.92 Å, α = 90°, β = 90°, γ = 120°); the distance between neighboring carbon atoms is 3.34 Å. The corner at the kinks is conjugated by two carbon atoms forming a C–C single bond, and the kinked angle (the angle between the vertical direction and the kinked bond) is 30°. (B) The equilibrium configuration of the constructed carbyne crystal based on first-principles calculations. (Left) The unit cell observed from the top (top panel) and side (bottom panel). (Right) The 4 × 4 × 2 supercell observed from the cross-profile perpendicular to the c axis (top panel) and side (bottom panel).

  • Fig. 6 Mechanism of carbyne formation.

    (A) Schematic illustration of four chemical reactions involved in LAL. Carbyne formation is probably involved in the second kind of chemical reaction occurring inside laser-induced plasma (T+ + L+) and in the chemical reactions occurring at the interface between the laser-induced plasma and liquid (T+ + L). T+, laser-induced target plasma; L+, excited liquid molecules. (B) The pathway from alcohol molecules to the carbon-carbon triple bond, in which alcohol dehydrogenated by Au ions plays a key role. [Au], Au ion; :Nu, nucleophile. (C) The emission spectra of different solvents during LAL; the peak of alcohol (558.1 and 563.3 nm) in the emission spectrum corresponding to the C2 swan band for Δv = −1. The spectra of nonalcohol solvent greatly differ from those of alcohol, and no C2 signal can be detected. (D) Similar fluorescence peaks using nanosecond (ns) and femtosecond (fs) lasers. (E) The thermodynamic phase diagram of carbyne adopted by Whittaker (33). Green region, the preferred thermodynamic region for carbyne formation. (F) Individual carbyne nanorod with gold nanocrystals adheres to its surface; the cartoon depicts how this structure forms. Scale bar, 10 nm.

  • Table 1 Structure information and binding energy: Carbyne crystal versus graphite and diamond.

    For comparison, the experimental value of binding energy for graphite is given in brackets.

    StructureCrystal systemHybridizationLattice parametersdCC (Å)Binding energy (eV/atom)
    Carbyne crystalHexagonalspa = 5.78 Å, b = 5.78 Å, c = 9.92 Å, α = 90°, β = 90°, γ = 120°1.30, 1.27−6.347
    GraphiteHexagonalsp2a = 2.46 Å, b = 2.46 Å, c = 6.80 Å, α = 90°, β = 90°, γ = 120°1.42−7.844 [−7.41] (35)
    DiamondCubicsp3a = 3.56 Å, b = 3.56 Å, c = 3.56 Å, α = 90°, β = 90°, γ = 90°1.54−7.730 [−7.37] (36)

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/1/9/e1500857/DC1

    Section I. The basic process of LAL

    Section II. Theoretical calculations

    Fig. S1. Evolution of laser-induced plasma in liquid.

    Fig. S2. Raman spectrum using a 514-nm laser source.

    Fig. S3. Raman spectrum of the 10-carbon carbyne and the optimized structure.

    Fig. S4. Raman and fluorescence signals of samples obtained at 4.5 min with HPLC.

    Fig. S5. HPLC analysis and UV-Vis absorption of a sample before HPLC.

    Fig. S6. Mass spectrum and NMR spectrum of a carbyne solution.

    Fig. S7. EDX contrast experiments.

    Fig. S8. Characterization of a sample stored for 6 months.

    Fig. S9. XRD pattern of carbyne annealed at a high temperature.

    Fig. S10. Chemical reaction path.

    Fig. S11. Schematic diagram of the experimental setup.

    Fig. S12. Control experiments.

    Fig. S13. TEM characterization of a sample in ethylene glycol.

    Fig. S14. Raman pattern of a sample synthesized in methanol.

    Fig. S15. Property of carbyne synthesized by femtosecond laser.

    Fig. S16. TEM image of larger carbyne crystals.

    References (3742)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Section I. The basic process of LAL
    • Section II. Theoretical calculations
    • Fig. S1. Evolution of laser-induced plasma in liquid.
    • Fig. S2. Raman spectrum using a 514-nm laser source.
    • Fig. S3. Raman spectrum of the 10-carbon carbyne and the optimized structure.
    • Fig. S4. Raman and fluorescence signals of samples obtained at 4.5 min with HPLC.
    • Fig. S5. HPLC analysis and UV-Vis absorption of a sample before HPLC.
    • Fig. S6. Mass spectrum and NMR spectrum of a carbyne solution.
    • Fig. S7. EDX contrast experiments.
    • Fig. S8. Characterization of a sample stored for 6 months.
    • Fig. S9. XRD pattern of carbyne annealed at a high temperature.
    • Fig. S10. Chemical reaction path.
    • Fig. S11. Schematic diagram of the experimental setup.
    • Fig. S12. Control experiments.
    • Fig. S13. TEM characterization of a sample in ethylene glycol.
    • Fig. S14. Raman pattern of a sample synthesized in methanol.
    • Fig. S15. Property of carbyne synthesized by femtosecond laser.
    • Fig. S16. TEM image of larger carbyne crystals.
    • References (37–42)

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