Research ArticleELECTROCHEMISTRY

Environmentally-friendly aqueous Li (or Na)-ion battery with fast electrode kinetics and super-long life

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Science Advances  22 Jan 2016:
Vol. 2, no. 1, e1501038
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1501038
  • Fig. 1 Schematic illustration of cell structure and electrode reactions.

    (A) Cell structure schematic illustration. (B) Electrode reactions.

  • Fig. 2 Electrochemical behavior of the PNTCDA-based electrode in aqueous electrolyte.

    (A) CV test in LiNO3 solution. (B) Galvanostatic charge/discharge in LiNO3 solution. (C) CV test in NaNO3 solution. (D) Galvanostatic charge/discharge in NaNO3 solution.

  • Fig. 3 CV curves at different sweep rates (v) and corresponding log ip versus log v of the PNTCDA composite electrode in 1 M LiNO3 or NaNO3.

    (A and B) LiNO3 solution (1 M). (C and D) NaNO3 solution (1 M).

  • Fig. 4 CV curves at different sweep rates (v) and corresponding log ip versus log v of the I/I3-based liquid electrode.

    (A and B) LiI (0.1 M) + I2 (0.01 M) + LiNO3 (1 M) solution. (C and D) NaI (0.1 M) + I2 (0.01 M) + NaNO3 (1 M) solution. The experimental conditions are the same as those described in fig. S3, and the experiment was also conducted through the special three-electrode cell shown in fig. S2.

  • Fig. 5 Electrochemical performance of aqueous Li-ion battery based on solid PNTCDA anode and liquid I/I3 cathode.

    (A) Galvanostatic charge/discharge at different current densities. (B) Cycle life. [Current density (A g−1) and specific capacity (mAh g−1) are calculated on the basis of the anode material.]

  • Fig. 6 Electrochemical performance of aqueous Na-ion battery based on solid PNTCDA anode and liquid I/I3 cathode.

    (A) Galvanostatic charge/discharge at different current densities. (B) Cycle life. [Current density (A g−1) and specific capacity (mAh g−1) are calculated on the basis of the anode material.]

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2/1/e1501038/DC1

    Fig. S1. FT-IR spectrum of as-prepared PNTCDA.

    Fig. S2. Schematic illustration of the cell for aqueous electrode investigation with a three-electrode system.

    Fig. S3. Electrochemical behavior of the I/I3-based liquid electrode.

    Fig. S4. Schematically showing the assembly of a full cell.

    Fig. S5. Rate performance of a full cell using a high-concentration aqueous cathode (5 M LiI or NaI).

    Calculation of energy density

    References (3335)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Fig. S1. FT-IR spectrum of as-prepared PNTCDA.
    • Fig. S2. Schematic illustration of the cell for aqueous electrode investigation with a three-electrode system.
    • Fig. S3. Electrochemical behavior of the I/I3-based liquid electrode.
    • Fig. S4. Schematically showing the assembly of a full cell.
    • Fig. S5. Rate performance of a full cell using a high-concentration aqueous cathode (5 M LiI or NaI).
    • Calculation of energy density
    • References (33–35)

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