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Efficient luminescent solar cells based on tailored mixed-cation perovskites

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Science Advances  01 Jan 2016:
Vol. 2, no. 1, e1501170
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1501170
  • Fig. 1 Basic characteristics of fabricated perovskite solar cells.

    (A) J-V curves for the champion solar cell under AM 1.5 G illumination, measured from VOC to JSC. (B) Cross-sectional SEM image of the champion cell. (C) Hysteresis measurements of one PSC at different scanning speeds under AM 1.5 G illumination.

  • Fig. 2 Influence and characterization of remnant PbI2 in the fabricated solar cells and films as a function of the ratio between PbI2 and FAI in the precursor solution.

    (A to D) Photovoltaic parameters JSC (A), VOC (B), FF (C), and PCE (D) versus Embedded Image, measured under AM 1.5 G illumination (100 mW cm−2). (E) Fraction of remnant PbI2 (left axis, orange line) and relative perovskite absorbance (right axis, blue line). (F) Mean crystallite sizes of FAPbI3 (left axis, green line) and PbI2 (left axis, orange line) phases determined by Rietveld refinement of thin-film XRD patterns and mean crystallite size ratio of PbI2/FAI (right axis).

  • Fig. 3 Characterization of recombination mechanisms and rates.

    (A) Current-voltage curve in the dark (blue), emitted photon flux (red), and external electroluminescence quantum efficiency (EQEEL) (green) of a device with Embedded Image. Lines are a guide to the eye, indicating the slopes for an ideality factor of 2 and 1, respectively, assuming a temperature of 320 K. au, arbitrary units. (B and C) PL decay for a film with Embedded Image and Embedded Image. Lines are calculated according to the rate equation in the text. (D) VOC as a function of short-circuit current ISC proportional to the light intensity, which was varied for blue and red illuminations.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2/1/e1501170/DC1

    Fig. S1. Independent certification from Newport Corporation confirming PCEs of 19.90% (backward scan) and 19.73% (forward scan) and a normalized electroluminescence quantum efficiency.

    Fig. S2. Photograph of two real devices (front view and back view) showing the active area of the solar cell, the high reflectivity of the smooth gold electrode, and the densely opaque optical appearance of the perovskite film.

    Fig. S3. Histogram of solar cell efficiencies for 40 solar cells, with the optimized PbI2/FAI = 1.05.

    Fig. S4. Initial stability test of PSCs sealed using epoxy and stored in a desiccator in the dark.

    Fig. S5. Absorption spectra of perovskite films on m-TiO2/c-TiO2/FTO substrate with varying Formula measured in transmission.

    Fig. S6. Top-view SEM images of perovskite films on ms-TiO2/c-TiO2/FTO with varying PbI2/FAI ratios (0.85, 1, 1.05, 1.1, 1.16, 1.23, 1.37, and 1.54) in the precursor solutions.

    Fig. S7. XRD patterns of perovskite films on ms-TiO2/c-TiO2/FTO with varying PbI2/FAI ratios (0.85, 1, 1.05, 1.1, 1.16, 1.23, 1.37, and 1.54) in the precursor solutions.

    Fig. S8. Normalized (001) peaks of PbI2 phase showing the variation in full widths at half maximum with increasing ratios of PbI2/FAPbI3 fraction.

    Fig. S9. Cross-sectional SEM images of perovskite films on ms-TiO2/c-TiO2/FTO with varying PbI2/FAI ratios (1, 1.05, 1.1, 1.23, 1.37, and 1.54) in the precursor solution.

    Fig. S10. External electroluminescence quantum efficiency as a function of the injection current for the device with PbI2/FAI = 1.16.

    Fig. S11. Normalized PL spectra of perovskite films on ms-TiO2/bl-TiO2/FTO with varying PbI2/FAI ratios (1, 1.05, 1.1, 1.23, 1.37, and 1.54) in the precursor solution.

    Fig. S12. PL decay of perovskite films on ms-TiO2/bl-TiO2/FTO with varying PbI2/FAI ratios (1, 1.05, 1.1, 1.16, 1.23, 1.37, and 1.54) in the precursor solution.

    Table S1. Photovoltaic parameters for PSCs measured using forward scan (from JSC to VOC) and backward scan (from VOC to JSC) at different scanning speeds (B, backward; F, forward).

    Table S2. Photovoltaic parameters for the stability of PSCs measured under AM 1.5 G illumination (solar cells were sealed with epoxy and stored in a dessicator).

    Table S3. Composition of perovskite composite film determined by Rietveld refinement.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Fig. S1. Independent certification from Newport Corporation confirming PCEs of 19.90% (backward scan) and 19.73% (forward scan) and a normalized electroluminescence quantum efficiency.
    • Fig. S2. Photograph of two real devices (front view and back view) showing the active area of the solar cell, the high reflectivity of the smooth gold electrode, and the densely opaque optical appearance of the perovskite film.
    • Fig. S3. Histogram of solar cell efficiencies for 40 solar cells, with the optimized PbI2/FAI = 1.05.
    • Fig. S4. Initial stability test of PSCs sealed using epoxy and stored in a desiccator in the dark.
    • Fig. S5. Absorption spectra of perovskite films on m-TiO2/c-TiO2/FTO substrate with varying RPbI2/FAImeasured in transmission.
    • Fig. S6. Top-view SEM images of perovskite films on ms-TiO2/c-TiO2/FTO with varying PbI2/FAI ratios (0.85, 1, 1.05, 1.1, 1.16, 1.23, 1.37, and 1.54) in the precursor solutions.
    • Fig. S7. XRD patterns of perovskite films on ms-TiO2/c-TiO2/FTO with varying PbI2/FAI ratios (0.85, 1, 1.05, 1.1, 1.16, 1.23, 1.37, and 1.54) in the precursor solutions.
    • Fig. S8. Normalized (001) peaks of PbI2 phase showing the variation in full widths at half maximum with increasing ratios of PbI2/FAPbI3 fraction.
    • Fig. S9. Cross-sectional SEM images of perovskite films on ms-TiO2/c-TiO2/FTO with varying PbI2/FAI ratios (1, 1.05, 1.1, 1.23, 1.37, and 1.54) in the precursor solution.
    • Fig. S10. External electroluminescence quantum efficiency as a function of the injection current for the device with PbI2/FAI = 1.16.
    • Fig. S11. Normalized PL spectra of perovskite films on ms-TiO2/bl-TiO2/FTO with varying PbI2/FAI ratios (1, 1.05, 1.1, 1.23, 1.37, and 1.54) in the precursor solution.
    • Fig. S12. PL decay of perovskite films on ms-TiO2/bl-TiO2/FTO with varying PbI2/FAI ratios (1, 1.05, 1.1, 1.16, 1.23, 1.37, and 1.54) in the precursor solution.
    • Table S1. Photovoltaic parameters for PSCs measured using forward scan (from JSC to VOC) and backward scan (from VOC to JSC) at different scanning speeds (B, backward; F, forward).
    • Table S2. Photovoltaic parameters for the stability of PSCs measured under AM 1.5 G illumination (solar cells were sealed with epoxy and stored in a dessicator).
    • Table S3. Composition of perovskite composite film determined by Rietveld refinement.

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