Research ArticleMATERIALS SCIENCE

Shape memory polymer network with thermally distinct elasticity and plasticity

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Science Advances  08 Jan 2016:
Vol. 2, no. 1, e1501297
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1501297
  • Fig. 1 Design of network with thermally distinct elasticity and plasticity.

    (A) Schematics of the physical molecular principle. Black dots represent permanent crosslinking points; green and blue colors represent the activated and nonactivated states of the reversible bonds, respectively; and red and dark gray lines represent the activated and nonactivated states of the chain segments, respectively. (B) Precursor monomers for the network synthesis.

  • Fig. 2 Thermomechanical characterization of the elasticity and plasticity.

    (A) Stress relaxation at various temperatures. (B) Partial stress relaxation and the corresponding shape retention at 130°C. (C) Quantitative correlation between the shape retention ratio and the extent of stress relaxation. (D) Consecutive plasticity (stress relaxation) cycles at 130°C. (E) Consecutive elasticity (shape memory) cycles. (F) Consecutive elasticity and plasticity cycles (labeled “I” and “II,” respectively, for easy demonstration).

  • Fig. 3 Shape manipulation via thermally distinct elasticity and plasticity.

    (A) Smart origami structures. (B) Smart kirigami structure. Scale bars, 10 mm.

  • Fig. 4 Demonstration of complex shape manipulation via cumulative plasticity effect and shape memory effect.

    The original and recovered shapes in each elastic shape memory cycle shown are visually indistinguishable; thus, the same photo was used for ease of demonstration. Scale bars, 5 mm.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2/1/e1501297/DC1

    Movie S1. Recovery from an origami boat into an origami bird with infrared heating.

    Movie S2. Recovery from an origami plane into an origami bird with infrared heating.

    Movie S3. Recovery from an origami windmill into an origami boat with infrared heating.

    Movie S4. Recovery from a flat film into a kirigami “ZJU” with infrared heating.

    Movie S5. Recovery from a flat film into an origami bird with infrared heating.

    Fig. S1. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) curve for the polymer network.

    Fig. S2. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) curve for the polymer network.

    Fig. S3. Stress strain curves (five tests) for the polymer network at 70°C (above its melting point), showing that the maximum strain is roughly between 750% and above 1100%.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Legends for movies S1 to S5
    • Fig. S1. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) curve for the polymer network.
    • Fig. S2. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) curve for the polymer network.
    • Fig. S3. Stress strain curves (five tests) for the polymer network at 70°C (above its melting point), showing that the maximum strain is roughly between 750% and above 1100%.

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    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Recovery from an origami boat into an origami bird with infrared heating.
    • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Recovery from an origami plane into an origami bird with infrared heating.
    • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). Recovery from an origami windmill into an origami boat with infrared heating.
    • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). Recovery from a flat film into a kirigami “ZJU” with infrared heating.
    • Movie S5 (.mp4 format). Recovery from a flat film into an origami bird with infrared heating.

    Files in this Data Supplement:

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