Research ArticlePALEONTOLOGY

Photosymbiosis and the expansion of shallow-water corals

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Science Advances  02 Nov 2016:
Vol. 2, no. 11, e1601122
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1601122
  • Fig. 1 Macrostructural and microstructural characteristics of modern and Triassic corals.

    (A) Polished slab showing morphological diversity of corals from Antalya (Turkey). (B) CV of growth band thickness in modern asymbiotic (yellow dots) and symbiotic (green squares) scleractinian corals. All Triassic corals (red diamonds), irrespective of growth form, show regular growth banding, that is, low CV values, consistent with a symbiotic lifestyle. Growth increments of TDs (transmitted light images) in the Triassic Coryphyllia sp. (solitary) (C), Volzeia aff. badiotica (phaceloid) (D), Cerioheterastraea cerioidea (cerioid) (E), Meandrovolzeia serialis (meandroid) (F), and Ampakabastraea nodosa (thamnasterioid) (G) in direct comparison with modern corals: asymbiotic Desmophyllum dianthus (solitary) (H), Lophelia pertusa (phaceloid) (I), symbiotic Goniastraea sp. (cerioid) (J), Symphyllia radians (meandroid) (K), and Pavona cactus (thamnasterioid) (L). Measurements and taxonomic attribution are provided in tables S1 and S2. Scale bars, 10 mm (A) and 50 μm (C to L).

  • Fig. 2 Nitrogen isotopic signatures of modern and Triassic corals.

    (A) Distinction of symbiotic and asymbiotic modern corals based on N isotopic composition of intraskeletal OM (CS-δ15N). All corals were from the same locality (Ilha dos Búzios, Brazil), within an area of ca. 5 m2 at a depth of 5 m (table S3). (B) Global comparison of CS-δ15N in modern symbiotic and asymbiotic corals correlates with the N isotopic composition of the corresponding local N sources (22, 23). The regression equations with fixed 1:1 slope for the modern asymbiotic corals (all deeper than 200 m) and symbiotic corals (all shallower than 20 m) are Y = X + 8.4‰ (R2 = 0.82) and Y = X + 1.1‰ (R2 = 0.88), respectively. The typical offset between modern symbiotic and asymbiotic corals is ~7‰. The Triassic corals from Antalya have a CS-δ15N range (~2 to ~7‰) that does not overlap with modern asymbiotic corals. Their average CS-δ15N (3.8 ± 1.3‰) is similar to the lowest CS-δ15N measured to date in modern symbiotic corals, which are from offshore Bermuda in the subtropical North Atlantic.

  • Fig. 3 Carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of modern and Triassic corals.

    Modern asymbiotic corals (yellow dots) plot in a field distinct from symbiotic corals (green squares) (10) and Triassic corals (this study; red diamonds). Symbiotic and asymbiotic corals from the same locality (Ilha dos Búzios, Brazil) have a black outline. Ellipses show previous measurements of Triassic (red) and modern (green) samples of symbiotic corals (8).

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2/11/e1601122/DC1

    fig. S1. Geology and paleogeography of the Triassic reef deposits.

    fig. S2. Microstructural and mineralogical features of the skeleton of the Triassic (early Norian) Volzeia sp. A from Alakir Çay, Turkey (ZPAL H.21.27) and modern symbiotic coral Symphyllia radians.

    fig. S3. Microstructural and mineralogical features of the skeleton of the Triassic (early Norian) cerioid Cerioheterastraea cerioidea from Alakir Çay, Turkey (ZPAL H.21.20).

    fig. S4a. State of preservation of early Norian solitary scleractinian corals (Alakir Çay, Turkey) used for geochemical analyses.

    fig. S4b. State of preservation of early Norian solitary scleractinian corals (Alakir Çay, Turkey) used for geochemical analyses.

    fig. S4c. State of preservation early Norian phaceloid scleractinian corals (Alakir Çay, Turkey) used for geochemical analyses.

    fig. S4d. State of preservation of early Norian phaceloid scleractinian corals (Alakir Çay, Turkey) used for geochemical analyses.

    fig. S4e. State of preservation of early Norian solitary and phaceloid scleractinian corals (Alakir Çay, Turkey) used for geochemical analyses.

    fig. S4f. State of preservation of early Norian phaceloid and meandroid scleractinian corals (Alakir Çay, Turkey) used for geochemical analyses.

    fig. S4g. State of preservation of early Norian cerioid scleractinian corals (Alakir Çay, Turkey) used for geochemical analyses.

    fig. S4h. State of preservation of early Norian cerioid scleractinian corals (Alakir Çay, Turkey) used for geochemical analyses.

    fig. S4i. State of preservation of early Norian thick-walled, pachythecaliine corals (Alakir Çay, Turkey) used for geochemical analyses.

    fig. S5. Oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of modern symbiotic and asymbiotic corals.

    fig. S6. Carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) isotopic composition of Triassic corals (Alakir Çay,Turkey) and calcite cements infilling their corallites.

    table S1. Inventory numbers, taxonomic attribution, and growth forms of examined Triassic coral samples from Antalya, Turkey.

    table S2. Inventory numbers, taxonomic attribution, and oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of Triassic corals from Antalya, Turkey and calcite cement from corresponding corallite infilling (the same inventory number as coral sample but with “_C” ending).

    table S3. Nitrogen isotopic composition of OM extracted from Triassic corals from Antalya, Turkey.

    table S4. Inventory numbers of sections, taxonomic attribution, locality data, symbiotic status (s, symbiotic; as, asymbiotic), and regularity of growth increments [expressed as CV (%) of dispersion of values of band thickness obtained from each skeleton] of examined modern scleractinian coral samples.

    table S5. Inventory numbers of sections (including numbers in Fig. 1), taxonomic attribution, and regularity of growth increments [expressed as CV (%) of dispersion of values of band thickness obtained from each skeleton] of examined fossil (Triassic) corals from Alakir Ҫay, Turkey.

    table S6. Nitrogen isotopic composition of skeleton-bound OM from modern symbiotic and asymbiotic corals.

    table S7. Inventory numbers of sections, taxonomic attribution, locality data, symbiotic status (s, symbiotic; as, asymbiotic), and oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of modern symbiotic and asymbiotic corals.

    References (4451)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • fig. S1. Geology and paleogeography of the Triassic reef deposits.
    • fig. S2. Microstructural and mineralogical features of the skeleton of the Triassic (early Norian) Volzeia sp. A from Alakir Çay, Turkey (ZPAL H.21.27) and modern symbiotic coral Symphyllia radians.
    • fig. S3. Microstructural and mineralogical features of the skeleton of the Triassic (early Norian) cerioid Cerioheterastraea cerioidea from Alakir Çay, Turkey (ZPAL H.21.20).
    • fig. S4a. State of preservation of early Norian solitary scleractinian corals (Alakir Çay, Turkey) used for geochemical analyses.
    • fig. S4b. State of preservation of early Norian solitary scleractinian corals (Alakir Çay, Turkey) used for geochemical analyses.
    • fig. S4c. State of preservation early Norian phaceloid scleractinian corals (Alakir Çay, Turkey) used for geochemical analyses.
    • fig. S4d. State of preservation of early Norian phaceloid scleractinian corals (Alakir Çay, Turkey) used for geochemical analyses.
    • fig. S4e. State of preservation of early Norian solitary and phaceloid scleractinian corals (Alakir Çay, Turkey) used for geochemical analyses.
    • fig. S4f. State of preservation of early Norian phaceloid and meandroid scleractinian corals (Alakir Çay, Turkey) used for geochemical analyses.
    • fig. S4g. State of preservation of early Norian cerioid scleractinian corals (Alakir Çay, Turkey) used for geochemical analyses.
    • fig. S4h. State of preservation of early Norian cerioid scleractinian corals (Alakir Çay, Turkey) used for geochemical analyses.
    • fig. S4i. State of preservation of early Norian thick-walled, pachythecaliine corals (Alakir Çay, Turkey) used for geochemical analyses.
    • fig. S5. Oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of modern symbiotic and asymbiotic corals.
    • fig. S6. Carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) isotopic composition of Triassic corals (Alakir Çay, Turkey) and calcite cements infilling their corallites.
    • table S1. Inventory numbers, taxonomic attribution, and growth forms of examined Triassic coral samples from Antalya, Turkey.
    • table S2. Inventory numbers, taxonomic attribution, and oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of Triassic corals from Antalya, Turkey and calcite cement from corresponding corallite infilling (the same inventory number as coral sample but with “_C” ending).
    • table S3. Nitrogen isotopic composition of OM extracted from Triassic corals from Antalya, Turkey.
    • table S4. Inventory numbers of sections, taxonomic attribution, locality data, symbiotic status (s, symbiotic; as, asymbiotic), and regularity of growth increments expressed as CV (%) of dispersion of values of band thickness obtained from each skeleton of examined modern scleractinian coral samples.
    • table S5. Inventory numbers of sections (including numbers in Fig. 1), taxonomic attribution, and regularity of growth increments expressed as CV (%) of dispersion of values of band thickness obtained from each skeleton of examined fossil (Triassic) corals from Alakir Ҫay, Turkey.
    • table S6. Nitrogen isotopic composition of skeleton-bound OM from modern symbiotic and asymbiotic corals.
    • table S7. Inventory numbers of sections, taxonomic attribution, locality data, symbiotic status (s, symbiotic; as, asymbiotic), and oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of modern symbiotic and asymbiotic corals.
    • References (4451)

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