Research ArticleDEFORESTATION

Deforestation-driven food-web collapse linked to emerging tropical infectious disease, Mycobacterium ulcerans

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Science Advances  07 Dec 2016:
Vol. 2, no. 12, e1600387
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1600387
  • Fig. 1 The average δ15N and a low δ13C in biplot space for all recorded host and nonhost organisms from the 17 sites.

    δ15N and δ13C were derived for each host taxon using data from the three sites analyzed for stable isotopic readings and extrapolated to the additional 14 sites. For each point, the square root–transformed mean number of M. ulcerans of the host is represented by the size of the circle.

  • Fig. 2 Figure showing the relationships between land-use, deforestation and M. ulcerans.

    (A) Plot showing the relationship between local site niche widths and the level of agricultural and urban landscape and deforestation in a 1-km buffer zone. The change in niche width caused by deforestation appears to be a steady decline, whereas the presence of agricultural land causes a sharp drop from where there is no agriculture, before exhibiting a similar steady decline in niche width as with deforestation, albeit less extreme. (B) Plot showing decline in vulnerability and generality as niche width declines with 95% confidence intervals. (C) Plot showing metrics of the food-web networks that allow taxa, which on average carry a higher M. ulcerans load to propagate. For all taxa, along the bottom axes are the mean regional food-web metrics for vulnerability and generality (that is, a measure of the food-web metrics of sites at which they are most abundant; see Materials and Methods for details), whereas the vertical axis shows the mean regional bacterial load of M. ulcerans.

  • Table 1 Primers and probes for real-time PCR detection.

    Nucleotide position based on the first copy of the amplicon in pMUM001 (accession numbers: IS2404, AF003002; KR, BX649209). TF, forward primer; TR, reverse primer; TP, probe.

    Primer or probeSequence (5′-3′)Nucleotide positionsAmplicon size (base pairs)
    IS2404 TFAAAGCACCACGCAGCATCT27746–2776259
    IS2404 TRAGCGACCCCAGTGGATTG27787–27804
    IS2404 TP6 FAM-CGTCCAACGCGATC-MGBNFQ27768–27781
    KR TFTCACGGCCTGCGATATCA3178–319565
    KR TRTTGTGTGGGCACTGAATTGAC3222–3242
    KR TP6 FAM-ACCCCGAAGCACTG-MGBNFQ3199–3212

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2/12/e1600387/DC1

    fig. S1. The average δ15N and a low δ13C in biplot space for each taxonomic group at each of the 17 sites.

    table S1. The mean regional food-web, stable isotope, and qPCR metrics for all taxa.

    table S2. Site location, local food-web metrics, and niche width for the 17 sites sampled in this study.

    table S3. Anthropogenic change within 1 km of the environmental change.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • fig. S1. The average δ15N and a low δ13C in biplot space for each taxonomic group at each of the 17 sites.
    • table S1. The mean regional food-web, stable isotope, and qPCR metrics for all taxa.
    • table S2. Site location, local food-web metrics, and niche width for the 17 sites sampled in this study.
    • table S3. Anthropogenic change within 1 km of the environmental change.

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