Research ArticleASTRONOMY

Circumstellar disks of the most vigorously accreting young stars

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Science Advances  05 Feb 2016:
Vol. 2, no. 2, e1500875
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1500875
  • Fig. 1 Polarized intensity images of the selected FU Orionis objects.

    (A to D) The Subaru-HiCIAO H-band image of FU Ori (A), the K-band image of Z CMa (B), the K-band image of V1735 Cyg (C), and the H-band image of V1057 Cyg (D). Scale bars in (A) to (D) are based on the assumption of distances of 450, 930, 900, and 600 pc. The brightness is presented using a log scale (more in fig. S3). The central 0”.3 scale region is masked in each panel (see the Supplementary Materials section “Polarization differential imaging”). Annotations of structures are given for convenience; their relations to the distribution of gas are discussed in the main text. R.A., right ascension; Dec., declination; Jy, jansky.

  • Fig. 2 Slices of the images presented in Fig. 1, at the position angles (measured north through east) of 0°, 45°, 90°, and 135°.

    An additional slice at the position angle (PA) of 110° is presented for FU Ori to demonstrate the faint and extended elongated structure in the northwest (see also fig. S2). Annotations highlight features from the images.

  • Fig. 3 Radiative transfer models of reflected infrared light from a gravitationally unstable disk.

    Panels from left to right are the gas column density produced by hydrodynamics simulations, the simulated H-band reflected light image for a face-on projection, and the simulated H-band reflected light image for the case of an inclination of 45°. The image sizes are 1000 AU × 1000 AU. The simulated reflected light images have the same spatial resolution and occultation mask size as our Subaru-HiCIAO image of FU Ori.

  • Fig. 4 Numerical hydrodynamics simulation of forming YSO.

    (A and B) Simulated disk surface density (A) and the protostellar accretion rate (B) over the time period of the simulation. The green boxes in (A) and the time period bound by the green dashed lines in (B) represent the proposed evolutionary stage of our observed YSOs (Fig. 1), when the disk exhibits strong spiral arcs and clumps. The inset panels at 0.15 million years (My) highlight the most massive fragment formed in the simulation. The inset panel at 0.29 My indicates one of the two ejected fragments.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2/2/e1500875/DC1

    Materials and Methods

    Fig. S1. Normalized radial intensity profiles (black) of images presented in Fig. 1.

    Fig. S2. The smoothed Subaru-HiCIAO H-band image of FU Ori, convolved with a two-dimensional Gaussian kernel with an SD of 5 pixels.

    Fig. S3. Polarization images with (A to D) and without (E to H) polarized stellar halo-subtraction. Brightness is log-scaled.

    Fig. S4. A schematic representation of the numerical hydrodynamics model, showing the vertical cut through the disk and infalling parental core.

    Fig. S5. The simulated spectral energy distributions for the model shown in Fig. 3, based on our hydrodynamics simulations (see the Supplementary Materials section “Hydrodynamics simulations and modeling infrared images”), and the observed spectral energy distribution from FU Ori, Z CMa, V1735 Cyg, and V1057 Cyg (50).

    References (4766)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Materials and Methods
    • Fig. S1. Normalized radial intensity profiles (black) of images presented in Fig. 1.
    • Fig. S2. The smoothed Subaru-HiCIAO H-band image of FU Ori, convolved with a two-dimensional Gaussian kernel with an SD of 5 pixels.
    • Fig. S3. Polarization images with (A to D) and without (E to H) polarized stellar halo-subtraction. Brightness is log-scaled.
    • Fig. S4. A schematic representation of the numerical hydrodynamics model, showing the vertical cut through the disk and infalling parental core.
    • Fig. S5. The simulated spectral energy distributions for the model shown in Fig. 3, based on our hydrodynamics simulations (see the Supplementary Materials section “Hydrodynamics simulations and modeling infrared images”), and the observed spectral energy distribution from FU Ori, Z CMa, V1735 Cyg, and V1057 Cyg (50).
    • References (47–66)

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