Research ArticlePARASITOLOGY

Hidden in plain sight: Cryptic and endemic malaria parasites in North American white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

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Science Advances  05 Feb 2016:
Vol. 2, no. 2, e1501486
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1501486
  • Fig. 1 Sampling sites of mosquitoes and wild ungulate hosts for Plasmodium parasites.

    A red star denotes the original sampling location for P. odocoilei from a single, splenectomized WTD in Tyler County, TX. Sites from which positive infections were discovered are indicated in red.

  • Fig. 2 Malaria parasites of the WTD as viewed under the light microscope.

    Microphotographs of parasites identified as P. odocoilei of the WTD including blood smears prepared from our study and the original type specimen (Natural History Museum, London, UK) for the species. Shown are trophozoites (t), gametocytes (g), and schizonts (s). Also shown is a picture of a WTD from one of the high-prevalence sites in the study.

  • Fig. 3 A multigene phylogeny displaying the relationships between Plasmodium lineages from WTD (clade denoted by black star) and other malaria parasites of vertebrate hosts.

    Host taxa are indicated by different symbols and parasite genera by different colors, and size of triangles indicates relative number of parasite taxa contained within a clade. The phylogeny was reconstructed by partitioned Bayesian analyses of mitochondrial (cytb, coI), apicoplast (clpC), and nuclear (asl) genes and rooted with Leucocytozoon taxa. Bayesian posterior probability values are indicated above nodes.

  • Fig. 4 Evolutionary relationships of Plasmodium parasites isolated from WTD and mosquitoes (A. punctipennis) in our study.

    The states from which parasites were sampled and sample sizes are indicated (state abbreviations included in table S2). The phylogeny and bootstrap support values (displayed above nodes) were estimated by maximum likelihood analysis of 614 bp of the cytb gene. Clades 1 and 2 are approximately 3% divergent.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2/2/e1501486/DC1

    Table S1. Mosquito species screened by nested PCR for Plasmodium infection for the study.

    Table S2. County and state locations for the wild ungulate species sampled in our study and proportion found to be infected with malaria parasites at each site by nested PCR.

    Table S3. Collection animals screened at the NZP’s campuses in Washington, DC, and Front Royal, VA, for malaria parasite infection by nested PCR.

    Table S4. GenBank accession numbers for Plasmodium sequences generated from WTD and A. punctipennis and used in the phylogenetic analyses in this study.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Table S1. Mosquito species screened by nested PCR for Plasmodium infection for the study.
    • Table S2. County and state locations for the wild ungulate species sampled in our study and proportion found to be infected with malaria parasites at each site by nested PCR.
    • Table S3. Collection animals screened at the NZP’s campuses in Washington, DC, and Front Royal, VA, for malaria parasite infection by nested PCR.
    • Table S4. GenBank accession numbers for Plasmodium sequences generated from WTD and A. punctipennis and used in the phylogenetic analyses in this study.

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