Research ArticleMarine Ecology

Nutritional input from dinoflagellate symbionts in reef-building corals is minimal during planula larval life stage

See allHide authors and affiliations

Science Advances  25 Mar 2016:
Vol. 2, no. 3, e1500681
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1500681
  • Fig. 1 Photosynthetic C fixation, nitrate assimilation, and translocation in newly released symbiotic P. damicornis planulae.

    (A and B) Histological sections of a planula, collected less than 12 hours after emission. coel, coelenteron; di, endosymbiotic dinoflagellate; ep, epiderm; ga, gastroderm; ld, lipid droplet; mes, mesentery; yp, yolk platelet. (C to I) Average 13C and 15N enrichments measured in the dinoflagellate cells (C to E) and in the planula host tissue during the pulse-chase experiment (F to I). Data are shown as box-whisker plots, with black horizontal bars indicating average values. Significant differences (Wilcoxon rank-sum test) are indicated between labeled and unlabeled control corals (*) and between samples from two consecutive time points (+).

  • Fig. 2 Visualization of C and N assimilation into dinoflagellates and translocation into host tissue in adult P. damicornis corals and their newly emitted planulae.

    Each row includes a representative TEM micrograph of the dinoflagellate-containing host tissues and its corresponding quantitative NanoSIMS 13C/12C and 15N/14N isotopic maps during the pulse (6 hours) and chase (until 48 hours) under light/dark cycling. Data for adult corals are derived from a recent study (22). Scale bars, 5 μm. di, dinoflagellate; ep, epiderm; ga, gastroderm.

  • Fig. 3 Comparison of the trophic contribution of C1 Symbiodinium cells to P. damicornis type β host in coral planulae versus adult colonies.

    Data are shown as box-whisker plots, with black horizontal bars indicating average values, and are compared by means of Wilcoxon rank-sum test. 13C and 15N enrichments in dinoflagellates are shown at 6 hours, that is, at the end of the labeling pulse. 13C and 15N enrichments observed in the host tissue of planulae (P) or adult corals (A) are shown at 48 hours, during the chase. Data for adult corals are derived from a recent study (22). (A) Isotopic enrichment levels in dinoflagellates. (B) Isotopic enrichment levels in host coral epidermal and gastrodermal cells, as well as in gastrodermal lipid droplets (LD). NS, not significant.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2/3/e1500681/DC1

    Fig. S1. High-resolution imaging of 15N distribution in coral cells of planulae exposed to [15N]ammonium.

    Fig. S2. Ammonium assimilation by newly released coral planulae.

    Data file S1. Summary tables of NanoSIMS isotopic measurements and statistical analyses.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Fig. S1. High-resolution imaging of 15N distribution in coral cells of planulae exposed to 15N ammonium.
    • Fig. S2. Ammonium assimilation by newly released coral planulae.
    • Legend for data file S1

    Download PDF

    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • Data file S1 (Microsoft Excel format). Summary tables of NanoSIMS isotopic measurements and statistical analyses.

    Files in this Data Supplement:

Navigate This Article