Research ArticleBIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING

Biodegradable triboelectric nanogenerator as a life-time designed implantable power source

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Science Advances  04 Mar 2016:
Vol. 2, no. 3, e1501478
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1501478
  • Fig. 1 Device structure, typical output performance, and cytocompatibility of BD-TENG.

    (A and B) SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of the nanostructure on the BDP film (scale bar, 10 μm). (C and D) Schematic diagram and photograph of BD-TENG. (E and F) Measured electrical signals by applying an external force: (E) Voc and (F) Isc. (G) Cell viability after cells were cultured with different BDP films for 7 days. (Inset: Fluorescence images of stained endothelial cells that were cultured on BDP films. Scale bar, 100 μm.)

  • Fig. 2 The working principle and electrical output modulating of BD-TENG by changing the materials of friction layers.

    (A) Schematic diagram of the working principle of BD-TENG. (B) Relative ability to gain or lose electrons of the selected BDPs. All candidate materials were coupled with Kapton film, and the transferred charges were recorded as the sign of the relative ability to gain or lose electrons. (C) Output performance of BD-TENG with different friction layers. Top: Voc. Bottom: Isc.

  • Fig. 3 Output of BD-TENG related to different surface morphologies and in vitro degradation process of device.

    (A) AFM image of PLGA film incubated with NaOH for different times. (B) Electrical output signals of FDNG with differently patterned PLGA film. (C) Photographs from BD-TENG at various stages of the degradation time line suggest that devices encapsulated in PLGA were initially resistant to mass degradation. However, after 40 days, significant mass loss and structure disintegration was initiated. Near-total mass loss was observed at 90 days. (D) AFM image from the surface of BD-TENG at different degradation times demonstrates the destruction of the BDP structure throughout the degradation process (scale bar, 20 μm).

  • Fig. 4 In vivo biodegradation of BD-TENG.

    (A and B) Images of an implanted demonstration for BD-TENG located in the subdermal dorsal region of an SD rat. (A) Implant site right after suture. (B) Implant site after 9 weeks. (C and D) Micro-CT image of implanted BD-TENG (white arrow) after 9-week implantation demonstrates the degradation degree of BD-TENG in vivo. (C) Cross-section image. (D) Reconstructed three-dimensional image. (E) Photograph of BD-TENG before implantation. (F) Histological section of tissue at the implant site, excised after 9 weeks, showing a partially resorbed region of the BD-TENG (red arrow). (G to I) In vivo output of BD-TENGs. (G) Plotted electrical output of BD-TENGs at several time intervals after implantation. (H) Electrical output of BD-TENG that was encapsulated in PLGA. (I) Electrical output of BD-TENG that was encapsulated in PVA. (J and K) Photograph of implant site of PVA-coated BD-TENG. (J) Right after implantation. (K) Seventy-two hours after implantation.

  • Fig. 5 Electrical stimulation of nerve cells powered by BD-TENG.

    (A) Rectified electrical output of BD-TENG. (B) Schematic diagram of self-powered nerve cell stimulation system. (C) Photograph of the two complementary patterned electrodes. (D) Bright-field microscope image of the electrodes. (E) Cell alignment analysis where the cell angle is represented by −cos2θ. (F to H) Orientation and distribution of nerve cells cultured on the electrodes. (F) Nerve cells with EF stimulation. (G) Nerve cells without EF stimulation. TRITC, tetramethyl rhodamine isothiocyanate. (H) Enlarged view of nerve cells directed by EF (the direction of EF is marked by a yellow arrow; scale bar, 50 μm).

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2/3/e1501478/DC1

    Fig. S1. Typical output performance of BD-TENG.

    Fig. S2. In vitro degradation of BDPs and metal electrode.

    Fig. S3. Water contact angle test of selected BDPs.

    Fig. S4. Bright-field microscope image of tissue fluid smears without any stain.

    Fig. S5. Calculated distribution of the EF of the stimulation device via finite element method (assuming that the input voltage of BD-TENG was 1 V).

    Fig. S6. A larger view of nerve cells cultured on the electrodes.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Fig. S1. Typical output performance of BD-TENG.
    • Fig. S2. In vitro degradation of BDPs and metal electrode.
    • Fig. S3. Water contact angle test of selected BDPs.
    • Fig. S4. Bright-field microscope image of tissue fluid smears without any stain.
    • Fig. S5. Calculated distribution of the EF of the stimulation device via finite element method (assuming that the input voltage of BD-TENG was 1 V).
    • Fig. S6. A larger view of nerve cells cultured on the electrodes.

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