Research ArticleMARINE ECOSYSTEMS

An extensive reef system at the Amazon River mouth

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Science Advances  22 Apr 2016:
Vol. 2, no. 4, e1501252
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1501252
  • Fig. 1 Map of the Amazon shelf showing the benthic megahabitats and seasonal influence of the river plume.

    (A) Distribution of reef fisheries and oceanographic stations. Manuel Luis reefs are the northernmost emerging reefs in Brazil. (B to D) Main structural and functional traits of the reefs in the Northern (120 m), Central (55 m), and Southern Sectors (25 m), respectively. Plume POC δ13C = −22.9 ± 0.7, δ15N = 4.0 ± 1.2; Plume DOC δ13C = −27.7 ± 1.0, δ15N = 1.3 ± 0.3. Subplume POC δ13C = −24.2 ± 1.3, δ15N = 5.1 ± 1.7; Subplume DOC δ13C = −26.6 ± 1.7, δ15N = 0.1 ± 1.8. Benthic (sediment) δ13C = −26.2 ± 0.6, δ15N = 2.2 ± 0.5. Some graphic elements are courtesy of the Integration and Application Network, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science (http://ian.umces.edu/symbols/). The plume lines represent the outer edge of the plume during that season, according to satellite climatology (80).

  • Fig. 2 Surficial reef fragments (left) and corresponding petrographic images (right) from the Northern (A and B, 120-m depth), Central (C and D, 60 m), and Southern Sectors (E and F, 23 m).

    Microfacies transition from an older grainstone (12,100 ± 30 thousand years BP) composed of filter feeders (polychaetes, foraminifera, barnacles, bryozoans, and molluscs) under a thin veener of coralline algae in the Northern Sector (A and B) to a more recently turned-off (5220 ± 110 thousand years BP) boundstone composed of photosynthesizers (crustose coralline algae) and filter feeders (bryozoans) in the Central Sector (C and D) and, finally, to a recent boundstone typical of turbid zone reefs (hydrocorals, crustose coralline algae, and corals) in the Southern Sector (E and F).

  • Fig. 3 Water column profiles under plume (A) and nonplume (B) conditions.

    (A) Station 2010-04 (5.495°N, 51.488°W), under intense plume influence, Northern Sector. (B) Station 2010-08 (4.349°N, 46.852°W) under nonplume condition, Central Sector.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2/4/e1501252/DC1

    fig. S1. Trawl and dredge casts on ships’ deck.

    fig. S2. Sonographic images of the main reef megahabitats off the Amazon River mouth.

    fig. S3. Carbonate fragments (A and B) and rhodoliths (C and D) sampled off the Amazon River mouth.

    fig. S4. Representative species of sponges collected off the Amazon River mouth.

    fig. S5. Representative species of corals and hydrocoral collected off the Amazon River mouth.

    fig. S6. Representative reef fish species collected off the Amazon River mouth.

    fig. S7. Fishing boat operating dinghies with hand lines and long lines near the shelf edge in the Northern Sector during the 2014 cruise.

    fig. S8. Density of fishing operations targeting red snapper (L. purpureus) in 2010 off the Amazon mouth.

    fig. S9. Depth profiles of salinity and DO measured during the R/V Cruzeiro do Sul cruise (September 2014).

    fig. S10. Relative contribution of functions related to chemosynthesis and photosynthesis recorded outside, within, and underneath the Amazon River plume.

    table S1. Algae recorded off the Amazon River mouth.

    table S2. Sponges recorded off the Amazon River mouth.

    table S3. Corals, hydrocorals, and gorgonians recorded off the Amazon River mouth.

    table S4. Reef fish species recorded off the Amazon mouth [does not include species recorded at the Manuel Luis reefs; see de Moura et al. (23) and Rocha and Rosa (44)].

    table S5. Oceanographic stations (primary data sources).

    movie S1. Sampling the plume, subplume, and reefs off the Amazon river mouth during the NHo Cruzeiro do Sul cruise (2014).

    Supplementary file. Shape files.

    References (8185)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • fig. S1. Trawl and dredge casts on ships’ deck.
    • fig. S2. Sonographic images of the main reef megahabitats off the Amazon River mouth.
    • fig. S3. Carbonate fragments (A and B) and rhodoliths (C and D) sampled off the Amazon Rivermouth.
    • fig. S4. Representative species of sponges collected off the Amazon River mouth.
    • fig. S5. Representative species of corals and hydrocoral collected off the Amazon River mouth.
    • fig. S6. Representative reef fish species collected off the Amazon River mouth.
    • fig. S7. Fishing boat operating dinghies with hand lines and long lines near the shelf edge in the Northern Sector during the 2014 cruise.
    • fig. S8. Density of fishing operations targeting red snapper (L. purpureus) in 2010 off the Amazon mouth.
    • fig. S9. Depth profiles of salinity and DO measured during the R/V Cruzeiro do Sul cruise (September 2014).
    • fig. S10. Relative contribution of functions related to chemosynthesis and photosynthesis recorded outside, within, and underneath the Amazon River plume.
    • table S1. Algae recorded off the Amazon River mouth.
    • table S2. Sponges recorded off the Amazon River mouth.
    • table S3. Corals, hydrocorals, and gorgonians recorded off the Amazon River mouth.
    • table S4. Reef fish species recorded off the Amazon mouth does not include species recorded at the Manuel Luis reefs; see de Moura et al. (23) and Rocha and Rosa (44).
    • table S5. Oceanographic stations (primary data sources).
    • Legend for supplementary file
    • References (81–85)

    Download PDF

    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Sampling the plume, subplume, and reefs off the Amazon river mouth during the NHo Cruzeiro do Sul cruise (2014).
    • Supplementary file. Shape files.

    Files in this Data Supplement:

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