Research ArticleAPPLIED SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING

High-performance 3D printing of hydrogels by water-dispersible photoinitiator nanoparticles

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Science Advances  01 Apr 2016:
Vol. 2, no. 4, e1501381
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1501381
  • Fig. 1 TPO nanoparticle size.

    Average (Avg) particle size of an aqueous dispersion of 0.1% (w/w) powder containing TPO nanoparticles obtained from microemulsions with various concentrations of TPO. Inset: Cryo–TEM image of an aqueous dispersion [0.1% (w/w)] of powder containing 25% (w/w) TPO.

  • Fig. 2 Molar extinction coefficient of TPO nanoparticles.

    Molar extinction coefficients of the TPO nanoparticles (solid line) and I2959 (dashed line) obtained by measuring the absorbance of 4 mM aqueous solutions.

  • Fig. 3 Polymerization kinetics.

    Percentage of conversion of vinyl bonds calculated using aqueous acrylamide solutions with TPO nanoparticles and I2959 at 988 cm−1 (assigned to the out-of-plane bending mode of the ═C–H unit) normalized to the C═O stretching peak at 1654 cm−1 as an internal standard at varying durations of UV (395-nm) exposure.

  • Fig. 4 Three-dimensionally printed hydrogel.

    (A to D) Three-dimensionally printed woodpile-structured hydrogel scaffold using TPO nanoparticles.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2/4/e1501381/DC1

    Supplementary Materials and Methods

    Biocompatible studies with PI nanoparticles and 3D printed hydrogels.

    Determination of 3D printed hydrogel water content.

    Determination of 3D printed hydrogel mechanical strength.

    Fig. S1. Effect of storage temperature and duration on size of TPO nanoparticles.

    Fig. S2. Cryo-TEM image of an aqueous dispersion [0.1% (w/w)] of powder containing 25% (w/w) TPO.

    Fig. S3. Stability of TPO in an aqueous dispersion [1.6% (w/w)] of spray-dried powder at different time intervals after filtration through 0.22-μm PVDF filters.

    Fig. S4. X-ray diffraction patterns for spray-dried powders containing TPO nanoparticles after 85 days of storage at 25°C.

    Fig. S5. Polymerization kinetics.

    Fig. S6. Effects of TPO nanoparticle concentration on cell viability.

    Fig. S7. Relative cell viability of Huh7 liver cells cultured on different substrates.

    Fig. S8. Mechanical characterization of polyacrylamide hydrogel fabricated with TPO nanoparticles.

    Table S1. Composition [% (w/w)] of the microemulsions before spray drying.

    Table S2. Theoretical composition [in % (w/w)] of the spray-dried powders.

    Table S3. Molar extinction coefficients of TPO nanoparticles and I2959 at standard center wavelengths of light sources used for DLP-based 3D printers.

    Table S4. Summary of different light sources used for hydrogel formation.

    Table S5. Summary of photopolymerization results using different water-soluble PIs with aqueous acrylamide solutions in air at 25°C.

    References (4264)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Detailed Materials and Methods
    • Biocompatible studies with PI nanoparticles and 3D printed hydrogels.
    • Determination of 3D printed hydrogel water content.
    • Determination of 3D printed hydrogel mechanical strength.
    • Fig. S1. Effect of storage temperature and duration on size of TPO nanoparticles.
    • Fig. S2. Cryo-TEM image of an aqueous dispersion 0.1%(w/w) of powder containing 25%(w/w) TPO.
    • Fig. S3. Stability of TPO in an aqueous dispersion 1.6% (w/w) of spray-dried powder at different time intervals after filtration through 0.22-μm PVDF filters.
    • Fig. S4. X-ray diffraction patterns for spray-dried powders containing TPO nanoparticles after 85 days of storage at 25°C.
    • Fig. S5. Polymerization kinetics.
    • Fig. S6. Effects of TPO nanoparticle concentration on cell viability.
    • Fig. S7. Relative cell viability of Huh7 liver cells cultured on different substrates.
    • Fig. S8. Mechanical characterization of polyacrylamide hydrogel fabricated with TPO nanoparticles.
    • Table S1. Composition % (w/w) of the microemulsions before spray drying.
    • Table S2. Theoretical composition in % (w/w) of the spray-dried powders.
    • Table S3. Molar extinction coefficients of TPO nanoparticles and I2959 at standard center wavelengths of light sources used for DLP-based 3D printers.
    • Table S4. Summary of different light sources used for hydrogel formation.
    • Table S5. Summary of photopolymerization results using different water-soluble PIs with aqueous acrylamide solutions in air at 25°C.
    • References (42–64)

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