Research ArticleEVOLUTIONARY ECOLOGY

Pre-Gondwanan-breakup origin of Beauprea (Proteaceae) explains its historical presence in New Caledonia and New Zealand

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Science Advances  29 Apr 2016:
Vol. 2, no. 4, e1501648
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1501648
  • Fig. 1

    Occurrences of Beauprea-type pollen and their geographical location at 85 to 75 Ma (A), 75 to 35 Ma (B), 35 to 1 Ma (C), and present time (D). AT, Antarctica; NZ, New Zealand; NC, New Caledonia; AU, Australia; AM, America. The light gray line indicates the boundary of landmass at that time.

  • Fig. 2 Number of records and number of species with Beauprea-type pollen.
  • Fig. 3 Neighbor-joining tree of fossil species (in red) and extant species.

    Bootstrapping values are shown on the node. The tree was rooted using Franklandia, Eidothea, Faurea, and Protea as outgroup.

  • Fig. 4 Supertree of Beauprea with fossil (in red) and extant taxa, and the closest phylogenetically related outgroup species.

    Blue lines indicate the known or estimated duration of fossil species in Antarctica and SE Australia (AU); blue bars are 95% HPD of the divergence age. Note that Beauprea arose at a mean age of 88.4 Ma. Gray areas indicate the hypothesized time period when New Caledonia and New Zealand (NZ) were submerged according to some studies (but shown here to be unlikely).

  • Table 1 Records for the five regions where Beauprea-like fossils have been identified at 15-My intervals through the geological record.

    Mean age was used to assign each species observed in a given study, although multiple entries are given if species occurred in successive 15-My intervals.

    AntarcticaSE AustraliaRest of AustraliaZealandiaSouth America
    Oldest pollen recorded (Ma)81.483.874.5*68.0
    Period (Ma)Approximate epoch
    84–70Upper Cretaceous6831*0
    69–55Paleocene93945
    54–35Eocene12111343
    34–20Oligocene28461
    19–5Miocene02330
    <5Pliocene/Quaternary03060
    Total records293432249
    P (Fisher’s exact probability test, two-tailed) for
    the last three periods combined
    0.00990.33270.00010.3739
    P (Fisher’s exact probability test, two-tailed) for
    the last three periods omitted
    0.26510.70460.88390.2778

    *“Upper Cretaceous” Couper (67).

    Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2/4/e1501648/DC1

      table S1. Numerical states for 11 pollen characters assessed on eight Beauprea species, five fossil pollen types, and four other extant genera in the same subfamily (Proteoideae) as Beauprea.

      table S2. Species, voucher information, and GenBank accession for all sequences included in this study.

    • Supplementary Materials

      This PDF file includes:

      • table S1. Numerical states for 11 pollen characters assessed on eight Beauprea species, five fossil pollen types, and four other extant genera in the same subfamily (Proteoideae) as Beauprea.
      • table S2. Species, voucher information, and GenBank accession for all sequences included in this study.

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