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Laser vaporization of cirrus-like ice particles with secondary ice multiplication

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Science Advances  20 May 2016:
Vol. 2, no. 5, e1501912
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1501912
  • Fig. 1 Experimental setup.

    A single ice particle is levitated in a quadrupolar Paul trap and irradiated by a high-intensity laser filament. Particle explosion and vaporization and subsequent secondary ice formation are recorded by a digital camera at 140,000 fps.

  • Fig. 2 Laser-induced droplet explosion.

    (A to C) The laser energy is (A) 1.8 mJ, (B) 2.3 mJ, and (C) 2.8 mJ. At t = 0 μs, scattered laser and white light from the plasma hot spots are visible, as expected for a transparent sphere. Fragmentation is visible in the last frame of each sequence.

  • Fig. 3 Formation of new ice particles.

    This formation follows the explosion of an ice particle induced by a single incident laser pulse of 50-fs duration and an energy of 3.5 mJ. The frame interval is 12 μs, and the exposure time is 1 μs. The full sequence is available as movie S1.

  • Fig. 4 Formation of new, homogeneously frozen ice particles.

    It follows the explosion of an ice particle. (A) Particle before the laser illumination. (B) Laser illumination. (C) Particle explosion. The main fragment is ejected backward and leaves the field of view, whereas many smaller particles are ejected from the shadow face. (D to F) Formation of smaller particles along the trajectory of the larger fragment after further illuminations by the laser filament. See movie S2.

  • Fig. 5 Growth of a stable particle.

    The particle has an initial diameter of 18 μm, 200 μm away from the initial particle position. After a reillumination at t = 10 ms, it grows up to 40 μm, with a progressive change in structure. At t = 26 μs, it takes the form of a triple ice rod. Simultaneously, a smaller particle evaporates. The full sequence is available as movie S3.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2/5/e1501912/DC1

    movie S1. Explosion of an ice particle illuminated with a high-intensity laser.

    movie S2. Formation of new ice particles.

    movie S3. Growth of an ice particle nucleated in the Paul trap.

    fig. S1. Probability distribution function of the ejection speeds of the fragments.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Legends for movies S1 to S3
    • fig. S1. Probability distribution function of the ejection speeds of the fragments.

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    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • movie S1 (.mp4 format). Explosion of an ice particle illuminated with a highintensity
      laser.
    • movie S2 (.mp4 format). Formation of new ice particles.
    • movie S3 (.mp4 format). Growth of an ice particle nucleated in the Paul trap.

    Files in this Data Supplement:

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