Research ArticleAPPLIED OPTICS

Biomimetic gyroid nanostructures exceeding their natural origins

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Science Advances  13 May 2016:
Vol. 2, no. 5, e1600084
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1600084
  • Fig. 1 Comparison of an artificial gyroid structure with a natural one.

    (A) Photograph of the butterfly C. rubi. (B) SEM image of the nanostructures found within the butterfly wings, with a periodicity of around 350 nm. (C) An artificial gyroid nanostructure fabricated by optical two-beam super-resolution lithography with a unit cell size of 360 nm. (D) Zoom-in of the artificial gyroid nanostructure. (E) White light reflection microscopy image of an artificial gyroid. Its lattice constant is 360 nm. The size of the structure is about 20 μm × 20 μm × 4 μm.

  • Fig. 2 Comparison of 3D gyroid PCs fabricated by optical two-beam lithography with the inhibition beam off and with the inhibition beam on.

    (A) The inhibition beam is off. (B) The inhibition beam is on.

  • Fig. 3 Mechanical properties of suspended lines fabricated by optical two-beam lithography with the inhibition beam on (red) and with the inhibition beam off (black).
  • Fig. 4 Large-scale artificial gyroid PCs with different unit cell sizes showing good uniformity and mechanical strength.
  • Fig. 5 Experimentally measured and simulated transmission spectra of gyroid structures fabricated by optical two-beam super-resolution lithography.

    (A) The lattice constant of the gyroid structure is 360 nm. (B) The lattice constant of the gyroid structure is 300 nm. L, left; R, right.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2/5/e1600084/DC1

    S1. When optical single-beam lithography is used to fabricate a smaller-sized feature, a lower fabrication laser exposure dose is normally used.

    S2. AFM characterization of mechanical property.

    S3. White light reflection microscopy images of artificial gyroid structures.

    fig. S1. Comparison of changes in polymerization degree between optical single-beam lithography and optical two-beam lithography to reduce the fabricated feature size.

    fig. S2. AFM measurement of mechanical strength.

    fig. S3. White light reflection microscopy images of artificial gyroid structures.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • S1. When optical single-beam lithography is used to fabricate a smaller-sized feature, a lower fabrication laser exposure dose is normally used.
    • S2. AFM characterization of mechanical property.
    • S3. White light reflection microscopy images of artificial gyroid structures.
    • fig. S1. Comparison of changes in polymerization degree between optical single-beam lithography and optical two-beam lithography to reduce the fabricated feature size.
    • fig. S2. AFM measurement of mechanical strength.
    • fig. S3. White light reflection microscopy images of artificial gyroid structures.

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