Research ArticleECOLOGY

Synergistic roles of climate warming and human occupation in Patagonian megafaunal extinctions during the Last Deglaciation

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Science Advances  17 Jun 2016:
Vol. 2, no. 6, e1501682
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1501682
  • Fig. 1 Extinction chronology of Pleistocene megafauna in southern Patagonia (9000 to 18,000 years ago), shown against West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide ice δ18O record (bottom) and the timing of Antarctic Cold Reversal chronozone (blue column) (9).

    Calibrated radiocarbon (14C) ages of extinct megafaunal remains from Patagonia [open circles with 1σ uncertainty indicated by vertical whiskers] are shown with calculated Phase boundary start and end (extinction) estimates (filled red squares) using the Southern Hemisphere calibration (SHCal13) curve (51) and OxCal 4.2 (26). The vertical gray bar denotes the 1σ range for megafaunal extinction in Patagonia. Calibrated 14C ages for the arrival of humans (with Monte Verde shown as “MV” with dashed line for extended age range) and modern lineage of L. guanicoe are shown as open circles and red square. (Top) A summary of the Northern Hemisphere climate and North American megafaunal extinctions is also presented. The Greenland δ18O and isotope event stratigraphy are shown (GS, Greenland Stadial; GI, Greenland Interstadial) (60), with the summed probabilities (1σ) of the youngest 14C dates for the latest Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions in North America (27), using the IntCal13 calibration curve (59). The tan and blue shading highlights the inverted timing of warm and cold intervals in the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere during the Last Termination. WAIS, West Antarctic Ice Sheet; NGRIP, North Greenland Ice-Core Project.

  • Fig. 2 Mitochondrial DNA phylogenies of Late Pleistocene Patagonian megafauna (red) relative to extant taxa (black).

    (A) Phylogenetic reconstructions of ancient and modern camelid sequences revealed two groups of camelids: Lama gracilis and a distinct clade of L. guanicoe. (B) Pleistocene Panthera onca were distinct from modern jaguars and represent the extinct subspecies P. onca mesembrina. (C) In contrast, sequences from Pleistocene Puma concolor are closely related to modern haplotypes. All Pleistocene samples represent haplotypes that are extinct or unsampled in modern populations.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2/6/e1501682/DC1

    Supplementary Methods

    Supplementary Results

    fig. S1. Map of South America showing sites where genetic data were recovered.

    fig. S2. Phylogeny of camelids based on 432 bp of mitochondrial control region data.

    fig. S3. Mitochondrial sequence data for Arctotherium.

    table S1. Fossil samples included in this study.

    table S2. Samples for which DNA extraction failed and 14C failed or was not attempted.

    table S3. Primer sequences used to amplify mitochondrial genes.

    table S4. Megafaunal 14C ages were calibrated against the SHCal13 data set.

    table S5. Published human 14C ages were calibrated against the SHCal13 data set.

    table S6. Results of independent replication of ancient DNA sequences.

    References (6165)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Supplementary Methods
    • Supplementary Results
    • fig. S1. Map of South America showing sites where genetic data were recovered.
    • fig. S2. Phylogeny of camelids based on 432 bp of mitochondrial control region data.
    • fig. S3. Mitochondrial sequence data for Arctotherium.
    • Legends for tables S1 to S6
    • References (61–65)

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    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • table S1 (Microsoft Excel format). Fossil samples included in this study.
    • table S2 (Microsoft Excel format). Samples for which DNA extraction failed and 14C failed or was not attempted.
    • table S3 (Microsoft Excel format). Primer sequences used to amplify mitochondrial genes.
    • table S4 (Microsoft Excel format). Megafaunal 14C ages were calibrated against the SHCal13 data set.
    • table S5 (Microsoft Excel format). Published human 14C ages were calibrated against the SHCal13 data set.
    • table S6 (Microsoft Excel format). Results of independent replication of ancient DNA sequences.

    Files in this Data Supplement:

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