Research ArticlePALEOECOLOGY

Debris-carrying camouflage among diverse lineages of Cretaceous insects

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Science Advances  24 Jun 2016:
Vol. 2, no. 6, e1501918
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1501918
  • Fig. 1 Chrysopoid larvae from Mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber.

    (A) Morphotype CI, BA12018. An, antenna; Ba, barklouse; He, head; Ja, jaw; Ps, psyllid; Le, leg; Lt, long tubular tubercle; St, short tubular tubercle. Note the two arthropod exoskeletons (psyllid and barklouse) attached to tubular tubercles. (B) Morphotype CII, L14002, naked. (C) Morphotype CIII, BA12019, naked. (D) Morphotype CII, NIGP164061, camouflaged. (E) Morphotype CII, NIGP164054, camouflaged. Scale bars, 2 mm (A) and 1 mm (B to E).

  • Fig. 3 Myrmeleontoid larvae from Mid-Cretaceous Burmese and French ambers.

    (A) Morphotype MI, BA12015, dorsal aspect. (B) Morphotype MII, NIGP164050, dorsal aspect. (C) Morphotype MII, BA12011, dorsal aspect. (D) Morphotype MIII, BA12013, dorsal aspect. (E) Morphotype MVI, IGR.ARC-236.3, head. (F) Morphotype MII, NIGP164044, dorsal aspect. Note that a spider is preying on the naked larva. (G) Morphotype MII, BA12017, dorsal aspect. (H) Morphotype MIV, BA12016, dorsal aspect. Scale bars, 0.5 mm (A, B, D, E, and G) and 1 mm (C, F, and H).

  • Fig. 2 Reconstructions of chrysopoid and myrmeleontoid larvae from Mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber.

    (A) Reconstruction of naked chrysopoid larva based on morphotype CI (specimen BA12018). (B) Reconstruction of naked ascalaphid larva based on morphotype MII (12 specimens).

  • Fig. 4 Reduviid nymphs from Mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber.

    (A) Morphotype RI, BA12020, dorsal aspect. (B) Morphotype RII, NIGP164052, dorsal aspect. (C) Morphotype RIII, NIGP164053, dorsal aspect. Scale bars, 5 mm (A), 1 mm (B), and 0.5 mm (C).

  • Fig. 5 Evolutionary history and paleodistribution of lacewings and reduviid bugs.

    (A) Simplified phylogeny of Myrmeleontoidea and related groups (13). (B) Simplified phylogeny of Reduviidae (22). (C) Paleogeographic distribution of Cretaceous camouflaged insects on a late Early Cretaceous (approximately 105 Ma) geographic map (45). Thick lines indicate the known extent of the fossil record; red stars represent extant debris-carrying insects; and red and yellow bars depict the new fossils reported here and known fossils, respectively. Fossil evidence of debris-carrying behavior has been marked with vertical bars: 1, a specimen from Early Cretaceous Lebanese amber (approximately 130 Ma); 2, a specimen from Early Cretaceous Spanish amber (approximately 105 Ma) (4); 3, a specimen from Mid-Cretaceous French amber (approximately 100 Ma); 4, specimens from Mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber (approximately 100 Ma); 5, a specimen from middle Eocene Baltic amber (approximately 45 Ma) (46); 6, a specimen from Dominican amber (approximately 20 Ma) (16); 7, specimens from early Miocene Dominican and Mexican amber (approximately 20 Ma) (8).

  • Fig. 6 Diversity and morphotypes of camouflaged insects in Cretaceous Burmese, French, and Lebanese ambers.

    Each reconstruction represents the first morphotype of each group.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2/6/e1501918/DC1

    Brief description of fossils

    fig. S1. Chrysopoids from Cretaceous Burmese and Lebanese ambers.

    fig. S2. Camouflaging structures.

    fig. S3. Myrmeleontoid larvae from Mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber.

    fig. S4. Myrmeleontoid larvae from Mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber.

    table S1. Measurements of 20 myrmeleontoid larvae from Burmese and French ambers.

    References (4750)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Brief description of fossils
    • fig. S1. Chrysopoids from Cretaceous Burmese and Lebanese ambers.
    • fig. S2. Camouflaging structures.
    • fig. S3. Myrmeleontoid larvae from Mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber.
    • fig. S4. Myrmeleontoid larvae from Mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber.
    • table S1. Measurements of 20 myrmeleontoid larvae from Burmese and French ambers.
    • References (4750)

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