Research ArticleAPPLIED SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING

A simple high-performance matrix-free biomass molten carbonate fuel cell without CO2 recirculation

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Science Advances  17 Aug 2016:
Vol. 2, no. 8, e1600772
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1600772
  • Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of a matrix-free MCFC without flowing CO2 at the cathode.

    (A) Caged anode. (B) Design for continuous operation.

  • Fig. 2

    (A to C) I-V curves (A), I-P curves (B), and ac impedance spectra (C) of DCMCFC.

  • Fig. 3

    (A and B) Stability of DCMCFCs at 600°C at an operating voltage of 0.5 V (A) and the ac impedance spectra before and after the stability measurement at 600°C (B).

  • Fig. 4

    (A to C) I-V curves (A), I-P curves (B), and ac impedance spectra (C) of direct wood MCFC.

  • Table 1 Comparison of reported typical fuel cell performances on using carbon and biomass as the fuel.

    YSZ, yttria-stabilized zirconia.

    ElectrolyteCharge
    carrier
    CathodeAnodeFuelOxidantTemperature
    (°C)
    OCV
    (V)
    Power
    density
    (mW/cm)
    References
    NaOH/KOH
    (54:46 molar ratio)
    OHNickel wound
    tube
    Nickel meshActivated carbonO2/air +
    H2O
    500~0.91~38.5(10)
    YSZO2−La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 +
    Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-δ
    (Ni0.9-Fe0.1)-
    Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-δ
    CharcoalO28001.035(9)
    YSZO2−La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-δNi-YSZMixture of
    pyrolyzed
    fiberboard and
    Li2CO3-K2CO3
    (62:38 mol)
    Flowing air7501.013878(5)
    38% Li2CO3 +
    62% K2CO3
    CO32−LiNiOx on stain
    less steel
    Ni-coated
    stainless steel
    SootFlowing
    CO2 + O2
    (molar ratio,
    1:1)
    800~1.04~96(24)
    32 wt % Li2CO3 +
    68 wt % K2CO3
    CO32−Ag sheetPorous Ni rodGraphiteFlowing
    CO2 + O2
    (molar ratio,
    2:1)
    700~1.0~640(25)
    Molten
    (Li,Na,K)2CO3
    CO32−(O2)AgAgBamboo
    charcoal
    Static air8000.97430This study
    Nafion 212H+Pt/CCarbon paper/
    carbon nanotube/
    enzyme
    0.01 mM
    maltodextrin
    Air50~0.60.8(7)
    Nafion 117H+Pt/CPt/CStarch
    processing
    waste water
    Air300.490.0239(38)
    Nafion 117H+Pt/CCarbon cloth (C)Lignin in
    H3PMo12O40
    solution
    Flowing O2Room
    temperature
    ~0.37~0.55(6)
    Ce0.8Sm0.2O2−δ
    (Li,Na)2CO3
    O2−/CO32−Lignin + active
    carbon
    Ce0.8Sm0.2O2−δ-
    (Li,Na)2CO3
    Composite
    Li/Cu/Ni/Zn
    oxides
    LigninFlowing air560~0.7425(16)
    62 mol % Li2CO3 +
    38 mol % K2CO3
    CO32−AgAg62 mol %
    Li2CO3 +
    38 mol %
    K2CO3 + 5 wt %
    carbon
    Flowing
    CO2 + air
    7000.934(11)
    Molten
    (Li,Na,K)2CO3
    CO32−(O2)AgAgWoodStatic air8000.9410This study

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2/8/e1600772/DC1

    fig. S1. The SEM pictures of charcoal and wood.

    fig. S2. EDS spectra of charcoal and wood.

    fig. S3. The OCV of the charcoal (□) and wood (○) fuel cell.

    fig. S4. TG-DSC analyses of charcoal and wood.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • fig. S1. The SEM pictures of charcoal and wood.
    • fig. S2. EDS spectra of charcoal and wood.
    • fig. S3. The OCV of the charcoal (□) and wood (○) fuel cell.
    • fig. S4. TG-DSC analyses of charcoal and wood.

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