Research ArticleAPPLIED SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING

Controlled deformation of vesicles by flexible structured media

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Science Advances  10 Aug 2016:
Vol. 2, no. 8, e1600978
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1600978
  • Fig. 1 The vesicle network and the underlying force distribution exerted by the nematic LC before deformation.

    (A to E) Vesicle network (A) and stress distribution on vesicle before deformation for ring (B and C) and boojum (D and E) defects. Anchoring strength: 3 × 10−4 N/m (B and D) and 3 × 10−3 N/m (C and E). The stress unit is 1.27 × 10−7 N/μm2.

  • Fig. 2 Defect structure for a deformed vesicle with kstr = 2.0, kcurv = 2.0, and kvol = 10.0 and anchoring strength W = 10−3 N/m.

    (A) Homeotropic vesicle shape evolution from (A1) through (A2), and equilibrium shape in (A3). (B) Degenerate planar vesicle shape evolution from (B1) to (B2) and equilibrium as (B3).

  • Fig. 3 Temporal behavior of the elastic energy and surface energy during vesicle deformation for anchoring W = 10−3 N/m and constants kstr = 2.0, kcurv = 2.0, and kvol = 10.0.
  • Fig. 4 Morphology of vesicle with homeotropic and degenerate planar anchoring before and after deformation when LC is found both inside and outside the membrane.

    (A and B) Shape of the homeotropic vesicle, with the corresponding defect structure. (C and D) Shape of the planar vesicle with its defect structure.

  • Fig. 5 Experimental observations of the straining of vesicles in a nematic medium.

    (A and B) Fluorescence images of GUV within an (A) isotropic solution of 5.5 wt % DSCG and a (B) nematic solution of 15 wt % DSCG at room temperature. In an isotropic environment, GUVs adopt a spherical shape, whereas in a nematic environment, the elastic forces distort the GUV into a spindle shape, with a cusp angle of α ≈ 107°. We note that (A) and (B) are not the same GUV. Scale bars, 5 μm.

  • Fig. 6 Shape anisotropy with fixed kvol = 10.0.

    (A) kstr = kcurv is varied with W = 10−3 N/m. (B) kcurv is varied with fixed kstr = 32.0 and W = 10−3 N/m. (C) W is varied with kstr = kcurv = 2.0. (D) LC elasticity L1 is varied with kstr = kcurv = 2.0 and W = 3 × 10−3 N/m.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2/8/e1600978/DC1

    A. Calculation of the best-fit surface in bead-spring model

    B. Analytical expressions for LC surface torque and pressure

    C. Surface torque to force calculation

    fig. S1. Illustration of the stress calculation due to surface torque.

    Reference (44)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • A. Calculation of the best-fit surface in bead-spring model
    • B. Analytical expressions for LC surface torque and pressure
    • C. Surface torque to force calculation
    • fig. S1. Illustration of the stress calculation due to surface torque.
    • Reference (44)

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