Research ArticleNEUROSCIENCE

The elementary representation of spatial and color vision in the human retina

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Science Advances  14 Sep 2016:
Vol. 2, no. 9, e1600797
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1600797
  • Fig. 1 Experimental design.

    (A) Schematic of the experiment. Individual cones within a classified mosaic were targeted with flashes of light (543 nm; 500 ms). Contours represent the stimuli and denote 70 and 90% capture of light over the cone. Subjects reported the color of each flash as red, green, blue, yellow, white, or not seen. (B) Examples of cone-isolating stimuli on an achromatic background that stimulate many cones simultaneously. M-cone–isolating conditions produce a green or greenish blue color, whereas L-cone–isolating conditions appear red. (C) Response repeatability across both subjects. Sixty L/M-cones were targeted in at least two sessions. The correlation coefficient (R) was computed between the responses elicited in each session. The distribution of R values across all 60 repeated cones is represented with a box-and-whisker plot. Cross, mean; red line, median; box, 25th and 75th percentiles; circles, outliers; whiskers span 9 and 91%.

  • Fig. 2 Color and achromatic percepts are represented by different cell populations.

    (A) Distribution of color-naming behavior from S10001 (n = 77 and 51 for L- and M-cones, respectively) and S20076 (n = 97 and 48 for L- and M-cones, respectively). Colors correspond to the percepts reported; black indicates not seen. (B) Distribution of white responses elicited from all L- and M-cones (n = 273). (C) Distribution of RG metric across all L- and M-cones (n = 273). The red, white, and green bars represent the cones that have response purities greater than the Monte Carlo distribution mean. The gray dotted area denotes the low-purity cones (n = 48).

  • Fig. 3 Color sensations from a trichromatic cone mosaic.

    Color responses from individual cells are plotted over the classified cone mosaic in two subjects (blue, S-cone; green, M-cone; red, L-cone). (A) S10001. (B) S20076. The inner circles denote the cone type (same color convention as mosaics); outer circles represent a response histogram, denoting the proportion of color responses. Scale bars, 2.5 arc min.

  • Fig. 4 Opponent neighborhoods produce achromatic sensations.

    Cones surrounded by neighbors of opponent type are highlighted. Large circles represent the targeted cone; medium circles highlight the six nearest neighbors. (A) S10001. (B) S20076. (C) Color responses from the 10 cones with pure opponent arrangements. Numbers on the x axis correspond to the labels on (A) and (B).

  • Table 1 Frequency of dominant color categories across L- and M-cones.

    Counts represent the number of L- or M-cones most frequently reporting the given color.

    WhiteRedGreenBlueYellow
    L-cones11948700
    M-cones7712100

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2/9/e1600797/DC1

    fig. S1. Wavelength invariance of color signals.

    fig. S2. Intensity invariance of color signals.

    fig. S3. Cones signaling color sensations are spatially clumped.

    fig. S4. The influence of neighboring cones on color appearance.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • fig. S1. Wavelength invariance of color signals.
    • fig. S2. Intensity invariance of color signals.
    • fig. S3. Cones signaling color sensations are spatially clumped.
    • fig. S4. The influence of neighboring cones on color appearance.

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