Research ArticleCLIMATE CHANGE

Rapid decadal convective precipitation increase over Eurasia during the last three decades of the 20th century

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Science Advances  25 Jan 2017:
Vol. 3, no. 1, e1600944
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1600944
  • Fig. 1 Geographical distribution of annual precipitation total trends.

    (A) Convective, (B) nonconvective, and (C) mixed precipitation (red circles, positive trend; blue circles, negative trend; shaded circles, statistically significant at a 95% confidence level or higher). The size of the shaded circle represents the magnitude of trend of millimeter per decade.

  • Fig. 2 Averaged time series from all stations for precipitation total, frequency, and daily intensity.

    Mean time series of (A) annual total (mm), (B) frequency (day), and (C) mean daily intensity (mm/day) averaged from all available stations for three categories and their linear trends (plus and minus indicate one σ value).

  • Fig. 3 Seasonal time series of precipitation total associated with the convective (red), nonconvective (black), and mixed precipitation (blue) days averaged from all available stations.

    (A) Winter, (B) spring, (C) summer, and (D) fall. Trend lines are all statistically significant at a 95% confidence level or higher. Plus and minus values are the σ sigma for the trend line.

  • Fig. 4 Seasonal time series of daily precipitation extreme for convective (red), nonconvective (black), mixed (blue), and all events (green dashed line) averaged from all available stations.

    (A) Winter, (B) spring, (C) summer, and (D) fall. Solid straight lines are statistically significant, and dashed lines represent no statistically significant trends.

  • Fig. 5 Annual daily extremes and precipitation total plotted against the air temperature averaged from all available stations.

    (A) Annual daily precipitation extremes plotted against the annual mean surface air temperature averaged from all available stations for convective, nonconvective, and mixed precipitation. Dashed lines are the moving averages for each 1°C temperature increment. Solid lines are fitted for a constant rate of change (a) with air temperature change (ΔT) using P = b(1 + a)ΔT. (B) The same as (A) but for averaged annual precipitation total.

  • Fig. 6 Relationship of convective precipitation extreme and total to specific humidity.

    (A) Time series of daily convective precipitation extreme, total, and specific humidity averaged from all available stations for each year. (B) Scatterplot of convective extreme and total versus annual mean specific humidity with linear regression lines.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/3/1/e1600944/DC1

    fig. S1. Annual time series of precipitation frequency for each precipitation category.

    fig. S2. Annual time series of daily precipitation extreme for each precipitation category and all events.

    fig. S3. Seasonal time series of daily precipitation intensity for each precipitation category.

    fig. S4. Geographical distribution of relationships of convective precipitation total and extreme to specific humidity.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • fig. S1. Annual time series of precipitation frequency for each precipitation category.
    • fig. S2. Annual time series of daily precipitation extreme for each precipitation category and all events.
    • fig. S3. Seasonal time series of daily precipitation intensity for each precipitation category.
    • fig. S4. Geographical distribution of relationships of convective precipitation total and extreme to specific humidity.

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