Research ArticleAPPLIED SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING

Electrically driven monolithic subwavelength plasmonic interconnect circuits

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Science Advances  20 Oct 2017:
Vol. 3, no. 10, e1701456
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1701456
  • Fig. 1 Electrically driven PIC system based on CNTs.

    The inset shows the mode distribution of a 500-nm-wide Au-strip waveguide. Scale bar, 500 nm.

  • Fig. 2 On-chip CNT-based emitters and SPP sources.

    (A) False-color SEM image of the practical five-channel CNT emitters. Scale bar, 5 μm. (B) Output characteristics of the CNT emitters. (C) EL spectrum of the CNT emitters and its Lorentzian fitting. a.u., arbitrary units. (D) Integrated EL emission intensity versus voltage bias. Inset: EL spectra of CNT emitters under different voltage biases. (E) False-color SEM image of the practical five-channel CNT SPP sources. Scale bar, 5 μm. (F) Output characteristics of SPP sources. (G) EL spectrum of the SPP sources. (H) Integrated EL emission intensity versus voltage bias. Inset: Corresponding EL spectra under different voltage biases.

  • Fig. 3 Monolithic CNT PV cascading SPP detector.

    (A) False-color SEM image of the practical five-cell cascading SPP detector. Scale bar, 5 μm. (B) Output characteristics of the detector. Inset: Schematic of the detector under incident IR illumination. (C) Transfer characteristics of the detector with Vds = −1 V. (D) Output characteristics of the SPP detector under different illumination intensities. (E and F) PV behavior (E) and noise spectra (F) of the SPP detector.

  • Fig. 4 Characteristics of the electrically driven PIC system.

    (A to C) SEM images of the PICs with different propagation lengths: d = 1 μm (A), 5 μm (B), and 10 μm (C). Scale bar, 5 μm. (D) 3D FDTD simulation of the SPP intensity along the propagation direction. (E) Output characteristics of S1, S2, and S3 with Vbias = 7 V on the sources. (F) Photovoltage of the cascading detector and SPP source current versus propagation length. (G) Output characteristics of S2 under different voltage biases applied on the source. (H) Detector photovoltage and source current versus the voltage bias applied on the source.

  • Fig. 5 Chip-level integration and deep-subwavelength characteristics.

    (A) Digital image of the PIC repeater array (wafer size, 10 mm × 10 mm). (B to D) SEM images of the repeater array (A) with different magnification levels. Scale bars in (B) to (D) are 250, 40, and 20 μm, respectively. (E) False-color SEM image of one channel in the PIC. Scale bar, 200 nm. (F) Output characteristics of the PIC. The inset shows the SPP mode distribution of the 200-nm-wide Au-strip waveguide. (G) SPP propagation length versus waveguide width.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/3/10/e1701456/DC1

    section S1. Definition of the device parameter

    section S2. Preparation and characterization of (8, 4) and (8, 3) and high-semiconducting-purity CNTs

    section S3. Analysis of the Au-strip waveguide mode

    section S4. PL spectra of the nonchirality-selected and (8, 4) and (8, 3) CNTs

    section S5. PL and EL spectra of the (8, 4) and (8, 3) CNTs-based emitter

    section S6. Propagation loss of the Au-strip waveguide versus vacuum wavelength

    section S7. Analysis of the FWHM of the SPP source

    section S8. Far-field emission of the LSPs

    section S9. Structure and performance of the CNT-based PV cascading detector

    section S10. The reason to select cascading SPP detector

    section S11. The near-field enhancement of the Au-strip waveguide

    section S12. Three-dimensional FDTD calculation of the SPP waveguide mode

    section S13. Calculation of the experimental propagation loss

    section S14. Analysis of the transmitted SPP energy in the detector

    section S15. SEM image of S3 indicating the exit of the source as P1 and the entrance the detector as P2

    section S16. Calculation of the conversion efficiency

    section S17. Estimation of the power to generate 8 mV photovoltage

    section S18. Analysis of the coupling efficiency as a function of CNT orientation versus Au-strip waveguide

    fig. S1. Definition of the channel length and width in the PIC system.

    fig. S2. Raman spectra of (8, 4) and (8, 3) and high–semiconducting purity CNTs.

    fig. S3. Mode distribution of the Au-strip waveguide.

    fig. S4. PL spectra.

    fig. S5. PL and EL spectra of the (8, 4) and (8, 3) CNT-based emitter.

    fig. S6. Propagation loss of the Au-strip waveguide versus vacuum wavelength.

    fig. S7. Analysis of the LSPs induced far-field emission.

    fig. S8. Structure and performance of the CNT cascading detector.

    fig. S9. Characteristics of the single-channel PIC.

    fig. S10. Near-field enhancement of the Au-strip waveguide.

    fig. S11. EL spectrum collected at the end of the detector.

    fig. S12. SEM image of S3 indicating the exit of the source as P1 and the entrance of the detector as P2.

    fig. S13. Photoresponse of the cascading detector under normal incident IR illumination.

    fig. S14. Schematic of the CNT orientation versus Au-strip waveguide direction.

    table S1. Averaged diameter, bandgap, and absorption range of (8, 4) and (8, 3) and high–semiconducting purity CNTs.

    References (4345)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • section S1. Definition of the device parameter
    • section S2. Preparation and characterization of (8, 4) and (8, 3) and highsemiconducting-purity CNTs
    • section S3. Analysis of the Au-strip waveguide mode
    • section S4. PL spectra of the nonchirality-selected and (8, 4) and (8, 3) CNTs
    • section S5. PL and EL spectra of the (8, 4) and (8, 3) CNTs-based emitter
    • section S6. Propagation loss of the Au-strip waveguide versus vacuum wavelength
    • section S7. Analysis of the FWHM of the SPP source
    • section S8. Far-field emission of the LSPs
    • section S9. Structure and performance of the CNT-based PV cascading detector
    • section S10. The reason to select cascading SPP detector
    • section S11. The near-field enhancement of the Au-strip waveguide
    • section S12. Three-dimensional FDTD calculation of the SPP waveguide mode
    • section S13. Calculation of the experimental propagation loss
    • section S14. Analysis of the transmitted SPP energy in the detector
    • section S15. SEM image of S3 indicating the exit of the source as P1 and the entrance the detector as P2
    • section S16. Calculation of the conversion efficiency
    • section S17. Estimation of the power to generate 8 mV photovoltage
    • section S18. Analysis of the coupling efficiency as a function of CNT orientation versus Au-strip waveguide
    • fig. S1. Definition of the channel length and width in the PIC system.
    • fig. S2. Raman spectra of (8, 4) and (8, 3) and high–semiconducting purity CNTs.
    • fig. S3. Mode distribution of the Au-strip waveguide.
    • fig. S4. PL spectra.
    • fig. S5. PL and EL spectra of the (8, 4) and (8, 3) CNT-based emitter.
    • fig. S6. Propagation loss of the Au-strip waveguide versus vacuum wavelength.
    • fig. S7. Analysis of the LSPs induced far-field emission.
    • fig. S8. Structure and performance of the CNT cascading detector.
    • fig. S9. Characteristics of the single-channel PIC.
    • fig. S10. Near-field enhancement of the Au-strip waveguide.
    • fig. S11. EL spectrum collected at the end of the detector.
    • fig. S12. SEM image of S3 indicating the exit of the source as P1 and the entrance of the detector as P2.
    • fig. S13. Photoresponse of the cascading detector under normal incident IR illumination.
    • fig. S14. Schematic of the CNT orientation versus Au-strip waveguide direction.
    • table S1. Averaged diameter, bandgap, and absorption range of (8, 4) and (8, 3) and high–semiconducting purity CNTs.
    • References (43–45)

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